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研究生:趙莉螢
研究生(外文):Li-Ying, Chao
論文名稱:就陰莖母親(ThePhallicMother)的影響論異形系列中蕾普利的轉變
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of The Phallic Mother: Ripley's Transformation in Alien series
指導教授:廖炳惠廖炳惠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ping-hui, Liao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:陰莖母親拋棄理論異形蕾普利
外文關鍵詞:The Phallic MotherThe notion of abjectionThe AlienRipley
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《摘 要》
本論文旨在於探究《異形》系列影片中女主角蕾普利之轉變。從1979年的《異形》到1997年的《異形4:浴火重生》,女主角蕾普利的身分從一個異形終結者轉變成為一位異形母親。她與異形的關係也從敵對轉變為母女。而在這看似為巧合的轉變之下,被強調出來的是異形對蕾普利的重大影響。本論文就要藉著對蕾普利轉變的探討,深思這些外星異種對她的影響。並將這些影響與陰莖母親(phallic mother)、拋棄理論(the notion of abjection)及母女之間的親密關係等概念一起重新思考。
論文第一章簡介每部《異形》電影的準備工作並觀察這四位不同導演對片中恐怖氣氛之凝聚及表現的拍攝手法。《異形》(1979)的導演雷利.史考特運用陰影與異形的結合來塑造片中的恐怖氣氛;在《異形2》(1986)中,詹姆斯.科麥隆藉著增加異形之數量並強化其攻擊能力來營造恐怖的感覺;當《異形3》(1992)由大衛.芬奇執導後,片中的恐怖氣氛與沉重的絕望畫上等號;在《異形4:浴火重生》(1997)的導演尚皮爾.尤內的眼中,恐怖氣氛只有藉著讓蕾普利與異形合而為一才可以完全表達。
在探討《異形》系列影片中恐怖的氣氛之後,第二章將討論重心置於此系列的幾處片段。並藉著探討這幾處片段來觀察女主角蕾普利的人格特質與創傷、她的母性本能及她越來越傾向於“異形化”的轉變。在本章中也發現前三種特質與蕾普利越來越“異形化”的傾向有深刻的關聯性。
論文第三章討論《異形》系列影片中恐怖的氣氛並借陰莖母親及克莉絲提娃的拋棄理論(the notion of abjection)來深思在《異形》系列影片中母親的身體如何的被扭曲及恐怖化(尤其是母親的子宮、陰道及輸卵管)及這些被扭曲的性器官如何對這些在片中的人們造成威脅。除此之外,藉由觀察異形的外觀及其攻擊方式,將其與陰莖母親的形象連結。當這些具威脅性的母親的性器官及陰莖母親橫行於片中並對人類大開殺戒之時,她們也在片終時被“拋棄” 。在克莉絲提娃的論中所謂的“拋棄”代表著一種社會或宗教中的潔淨儀式。當這一連串的《異形》電影都以將異形拋出太空船外為結束時,這個拋出的動作也可謂是一種“拋棄” ,更是一種潔淨的儀式。將不合理教或是社會規範的物品去除。而這些被拋棄或潔淨的物品卻是母親。
論文的第四章將焦點放在蕾普利的人格特質及其轉變的原因。在第二章中我有提到蕾普利的母性本能。在她母性本能的發揮之下,蕾普利在《異形》及《異形2》中成功的被塑造成一位理想母親的形象。但在這理想母親的面具下,潛藏著陰莖母親的特質,而這些特質傳承字她的母親;並在她的領導力、戰鬥力及她對瓊斯(蕾普利的貓)及忸特(在《異形2》中的小女孩)的控制慾中完全的彰顯。所以,當蕾普利在《異形3》及《異形4:浴火重生》中會被異形穿透並成為另一個異形母親並不是一個偶然;而是潛藏在她內心深處陰莖母親的特質被異形喚醒所致。然而這個既有理想母親形象又有陰莖母親特質的蕾普利,在我眼中,卻是《異形》電影中最理想的女性角色。
第五章除了總結前述四個章節之外, 也對影片中一些未能妥善討論之處及資料蒐集不完全之處加以說明。並希望藉著本論文的探討及分析,對蕾普利在《異形》電影中的轉變注入新的詮釋。

Abstract
The theme of my thesis is to elaborate Ripley’s transformation in Alien series. From Alien to Alien Resurrection, Ripley’s status transforms from an alien terminator to an alien mother. The transformation is not only presented in her status but also in her relationship with the aliens. Ripley and the aliens are enemies in the beginning of the Alien series. However, their opponent relation transforms to be mother-and-children in the end. Ripley’s ironic transformation seems to be a coincident caused by four different directors’ presentation. Yet, the transformation has an insightful connection with the influence of the aliens. And in this thesis, I will illustrate how Ripley’s transformation has an intimate connection with the aliens with concepts of the phallic mother, the abjection and mother-daughter dyad.
The opening chapter introduces preparations of each Alien film and concentrates on how these directors create the frightening atmosphere in the Alien series. By focusing on different shooting styles, I single out that the frightening atmosphere is highlighted by concealing the aliens in the dark in Alien; increasing the number of the aliens in Aliens; reinforcing the sense of desperation in Alien3 and breaking through the boundary between Ripley and the aliens in Alien Resurrection.
Chapter two is devoted to the scenario of these four films. By examining the details of the scenario, I will highlight several controversial episodes. First of all, I discuss Ripley’s refusal to open the hatch for her partners who investigate the unknown planet. From this episode, I elaborate Ripley’s personality and associate her reaction with the final girl for further discussing her fear and trauma. Then I focus on the episodes in which Ripley neglects the peril for rescuing a cat, Jones, and the girl, Newt. And these episodes help us to be aware of Ripley’s maternal instinct. Finally, the relationship between Ripley and the alien will be mentioned. Through observing the ending of every films, I notice that Ripley and the aliens are getting closer and closer in distance which reflects on the more and more intimate of their connection. By discussing these questions, I reach the conclusion that these three elements, Ripley’s fear, maternal instinct and her intimate connection with the aliens, are firmly associated with each other.
Chapter three deals with the fear in the Alien series with the concept of he phallic mother and Kristeva’s concept of the abjection. This chapter will begin with discussing the frightening atmosphere in the Alien series by introducing the distorted maternal body with theories of Freud, Melanie Klein and Julia Kristeva. These theorists single out that the children twists the mother’s image by fantasizing her as the phallic mother. The phallic mother and her distorted maternal body, especially her sexual organs such as the womb or the vagina, are evoked to be threatening monsters haunting the children. That’s why the aliens can arouse the uneasy or the horror of the audience and the crew members in the films. These outer space monsters are the embodiments of the phallic mother. When Barbara Creed draws on Kristeva’s concept of the abjection to analyze the aliens, she regards these aliens as the abject. According to Kristeva, the abject comes from children’s fantasy over the pre-oedipal mother that represents something that should be ejected. As a result, each Alien film always end with ejecting the aliens out of the spaceship, according to Kristeva, is the rituals of purification.
Chapter Four will take care of Ripley’s complex characteristics, which include the characteristics of the ideal mother and the phallic mother. According to her maternal instinct in Alien and Aliens, Ripley stands for an ideal mother. But the reason for protecting Jones and Newt means more than presenting her maternal instinct. It connects with the lack in Ripley. And Jones and Newt are the substitute to make up for the lack. Besides, Ripley, in Alien series, presents not only her ideal mother characteristics but also her phallic power in her leadership and in her dominating desire over Jones and Newt. Her phallic power is not aroused by her personality. That also connects with the influence of the phallic mother. In the end, I also concentrate on Ripley’s transformation and associate it with the influence of the phallic mother. According to my personal opinion, Ripley in Alien Resurrection is not a freak or a monster. She is a unique female character containing the characteristics of the ideal mother and the phallic mother.
Chapter five summarizes the discussion in other four chapters and points out insufficient discussion in some paradoxical episodes and the difficulties in obtaining historical and political materials. In reviewing these issues, I expect to rethink Ripley and her unique transformation.

Table of Contents
Chapter One:
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….. 1
Chapter Two:
The Final Girl Ripley and Her Controversial Connection with the Aliens
Ripley, the Final Girl ……………………………………………………………… 21
Ripley, the Surrogate Mother, and Her Babies ……………………………………. 23
To Exterminate the Aliens or to Ruin Ripley Herself? ……………………………. 29
Chapter Three:
The Story of the Phallic Mother: The Alien Series
The Horror in Science Fiction Films………………………………………………. 36
The Distorted Mothers and her Bodies…………………………………………….. 37
The Aliens v.s. The Phallic Mother ………………………………………………... 44
The Operation of Exorcism ………………………………………………………… 46
Chapter Four:
Returning to the Phallic Mother’s Arms: Ripley’s Transformation
Ripley, The Ideal Mother………………………………………………………….. . 52
The Ideal Mother and The Male Spectators………………………………………… 54
Ripley’s Eternal Lack and Her Endless Connection With Her Mother…………….. 56
Threatening Ripley and the Threat in Ripley ……………………………………… 58
The Futuristic Vampire, the Superwoman and the Real Ideal Mother Image ……… 61
Chapter Five:
Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………. 66
Works Cited ………………………………………………………………………. 70

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