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研究生:張文誠
研究生(外文):Wen-cheng Chang
論文名稱:曼陀羅的生命旅行:賴聲川《如夢之夢》裡的集體重覆、創傷記憶、與歷史再現
論文名稱(外文):Mandalian Life Journey: Collective Repetition, Traumatic Recollection, and Historical Representation in Stan Lai''s A Dream Like A Dream
指導教授:楊莉莉楊莉莉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-li Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:如夢之夢夢幻劇曼陀羅集體重覆創傷記憶歷史再現漂泊離散後設劇場
外文關鍵詞:A Dream Like A DreamA Dream PlayMandalaCollective repetitionTraumatic recollectionHistorical representationDiasporaMetatheatre
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中文摘要
賴聲川執導的《如夢之夢》於2000年5月18及19號在國立藝術學院首演。這篇論文將透過《如夢之夢》的後設劇場形式,探索生命型態的集體重覆、反覆的創傷記憶、和歷史軌跡的再現,企圖去檢視曼陀羅生命旅行的架構。
第二章探討賴聲川如何將曼陀羅的宗教象徵運用在情節及舞台上,以及他如何利用環形舞台去製造歷史並置的效果;此外,史特林堡的《夢幻劇》在架構及主題上均類似於《如夢之夢》,也將一併分析比較。
第三章分析《如夢之夢》裡的集體重覆。在這個舞台作品,集體歷史與個人愛情故事均按固定形式重現。普遍性議題的重覆展現於政治受難者所遭受的迫害以及集體潛意識的作用,個人生活形式的重覆則是呈現在輪迴所引起的複雜情愛關係。
第四章處理創傷記憶,分析劇中人物如何回憶及再現創傷。當人物們的分身回憶過往時,本尊同時「演出」過去的歷史事件。他們的湖上凝視與一再重覆的惡夢也揭露了他們的創傷記憶。
第五章透過對文化認同及集體記憶的討論,去檢視個人及集體的歷史。將從認同危機出發,去分析華人角色的漂泊離散意識(diasporic consciousness);此外,此劇中的當代中國歷史脈絡,也將依時間先後順序一一檢視。
第六章從戲中戲的結構、自覺意識的角色扮演,以及儀式化的演出三個面向,去探討此劇後設劇場的形式。將觀眾置在戲劇廳的中央、打破現實與虛幻的疆界、和暴露戲劇的人為本質,都是迫使觀眾意識到己身正在參與一場表演。
最後一章歸納《如夢之夢》為賴聲川先前創作作品的集大成。這個作品揉合了各式各樣的議題,包含宗教、生命、政治、歷史、創傷記憶和文化認同,很明顯樹立了賴聲川劇場生涯的程碑。重覆循環的意象也意味著這場表演象徵一個永無止盡的曼陀羅生命旅行。
A Dream Like A Dream (Rumeng zhi Meng), directed by Stan Lai, was given the première at National Institute of the Arts on May 18 and May 19, 2000 in Taipei. This thesis aims to examine the structure of mandalian life journey by exploring the collective repetition in life patterns, the repetitive traumatic recollections, and the representation of historical trajectory through the form of metatheatre used in A Dream Like A Dream.
Chapter Two explores how Stan Lai adopts the religious symbol of mandala in the plot and on the stage and how he uses the encircling stage to produce the effect of historical juxtapositions. Besides, Strindberg’s A Dream Play, which is very similar to A Dream Like A Dream in terms of the structure and the themes, will be compared.
Chapter Three analyzes the collective repetition in A Dream Like A Dream. In this stage work, both collective history and personal love story are reproduced in a fixed form. The repetition of universal issues demonstrates through the persecution of sociopolitical victims and the function of collective unconscious. The repetition of personal life form centers on the complicated love relationship caused by samsara.
Chapter Four deals with the traumatic recollections, analyzing how the characters in this spectacle reminisce about and represent their traumas. The characters “act out” the past historical events while their doubles are recalling the past. The characters’ gazing at the lake and their repeating nightmares both unveil their traumatic memory.
Chapter Five examines personal and collective history through the discussions of cultural identity and collective memory. The diasporic consciousness of the Chinese characters will be analyzed through exploring the issue of identity crisis. In addition, the contemporary Chinese historical contexts set in this work will be examined in chronological order.
Chapter Six looks into the metatheatricality from three aspects: structure of a play-within-a-play, self-conscious role-playing, and a ceremonial spectacle. Placing the audiences at the center of the theatre hall, breaking the difference between reality and illusion, and exposing theatrical artificiality oblige them to be aware of participating in a performance.
The final chapter concludes that A Dream Like A Dream is the culmination of Stan Lai’s previous creative works. This work, which comprises of various subjects including religion, life, politics, traumatic memories, cultural issues and historical trajectory, obviously sets a milestone in Stan Lai’s theatrical career. The repeated image of circle implies that this performance symbolizes an endless mandalian life journey.
Table of Contents
Chapter One: Introduction…………...………………………………………………1
Chapter Two: Mandalian Life Journey in a Dream within a Dream………………..13
I. Circular Life Journey on a Mandalian Stage…………………………………16
1. Mandalian Plot Structure……………………………………………….18
2. The Encircling Stage of Three-dimensional Mandala………………….20
3. Historical Juxtaposition…………………………………………………25
II. A Dream Like A Dream Derived from A Dream Play……………………….26
1. Life as a Pilgrimage of a Soul Suffering Karma………………………..28
2. Repetition of Fundamental Human Conditions…………………………31
3. Enlightenment from Wide-awake Dreams……………..……………….33
Chapter Three: Collective Repetition………………………………………………40
I. Repetition of Universal Issues………………………………………………..41
1. Victims of Tyrannical Administration…………………………………..43
2. Collective Representation with Collective Unconscious……………….45
II. Repetitive Cycle of Individual Life Pattern………………………………….49
1. Dreamlike Model of Love Affair……………………………………….50
2. Melodramatic Pursuit of Illusory Love…………………………………52
Chapter Four: Traumatic Recollection……………………………………………..56
I. Narration of Ineffaceable Memory…………………………………………...58
1. Discovery of the Past through Discourse of Self………………………...58
2. Disclosure of One’s Mind………………………………………………..62
II. Predicament of Traumatic Memory…………………………………………...64
1. Reconstructing the “Primal Scenes” through Gaze………………………65
2. Repeating the Same Dream at Crucial Moments………………………...69
Chapter Five: Historical Representation……………………………………………75
I. Reconstructing the Cultural Identity……….…………………………………76
1. Identity Crisis of the Foreigners in Exile………………………………...77
2. The Process of Construction of Self-identity…………………………….81
II. Reconstructing the Contemporary Chinese History…………………………83
1. Foreign Invasions………………………………………………………...85
2. Domestic Political Oppression…………………………………………...91
Chapter Six: A Metatheatrical Performance………………………………………...97
I. Structure of a Play-within-a-play……………………………………………..98
II. Self-conscious Role-playing………………………………………………..101
III. A ceremonial Spectacle……………………………………………………104
Chapter Seven: Conclusion………………………………………………………..111
Works Cited………………………………………………………………………..118
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………….123
Appendix I: Scenario of A Dream Like A Dream………………………………….126
Appendix II: The Creative Works of Stan Lai…………...………………………...129
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