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研究生:闕華君
論文名稱:PECVD法製備氟化非晶碳膜之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Fluorinated Amorphous Carbon Films Prepared by PECVD
指導教授:林樹均
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:材料科學工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:氟化非晶碳膜
外文關鍵詞:PECVD
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本論文使用電漿輔助化學氣相沈積技術,採用CF4混合C2H2作為前驅物,沈積氟化非晶碳膜。結果顯示氟碳膜組成為碳、氟兩元素,氧雜質在表面含量小於1 at%;薄膜表面2~3 nm具有氟含量較多的特性,薄膜內部氟碳比率依製程參數不同約為0.08~0.51,且分布均勻。若增加CF4含量,則薄膜沈積速率有先升後降之趨勢,並提升薄膜氟碳比率且使折射率下降。製程壓力與電漿功率增加對沈積速率有正面助益,但電漿功率過大可能導致蝕刻效應;而功率越大,薄膜折射率也越低;基板溫度越高,則沈積速率下降,薄膜氟碳比率下降且折射率提高。選擇氣體流量比CF4/ C2H2 = 15(CF4 = 93.8 %)、製程壓力為500 mTorr、電漿功率為180 W、基板溫度為100 ℃之參數,可得高氟碳比率(F/C~0.51)的氟碳膜;此條件沈積速率可達83 nm/min,折射率可低至1.35,在高頻的電場下其介電常數經由折射率換算,可得介電常數k = 1.82 ( k = n2 ),粗糙度僅為0.31 nm。高氟碳比率的薄膜,硬度及彈性模數皆較低;400 ℃熱處理後,薄膜氟碳比率會下降;Ar電漿前處理有助於附著性的提升,若經3分鐘Ar電漿前處理後,Si3N4基材鍍上高氟碳比的薄膜,即可完全通過剝離測試。沈積完成後的薄膜,經過Ar電漿處理,表面成份會改變,但整體性質(折射率、機械性質)沒有太大變化。整體而言,本製程之氟化非晶碳膜,在層間介電材料之應用上,極具潛力。
目 錄
摘要…………………………………………………………………..…Ⅰ
誌謝……………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………..Ⅶ
表目錄………………………………………………………………XI
壹. 前 言………………………………………………………..….1
貳. 文 獻 回 顧………………………………………………………...3
2-1積體電路技術現況及未來發展……………………………………..3
2-1-1阻容延遲效應( RC Delay )……………………………….....3
2-2內連線的選擇……………………………………………………..…5
2-3銅金屬內連線製作之主要製程……………………………………..5
2-4層間介電薄膜(IMD)之性質要求[9]……………………..………….7
2-5主要的低介電常數材料製程…………………………………..……7
2-5-1氣相沈積法[10-13]………………………………...………….9
2-5-2旋轉塗佈法( Spin Coating )………………………….……….9
2-5-2-1溶凝膠法( Sol-Gel )……………………………...……11
2-5-3其他技術[16-18]…………………………………….……….11
2-6低介電材料之介紹………………………………...……………….13
2-6-1氟化二氧化矽( Fluorinated SiO2,SiOF)[19-21]………….....13
2-6-2多孔性二氧化矽(Porous Silica )[22-23]…………………….13
2-6-3無機矽氧烷類高分子………………………………………..14
2-6-4 Benezocyclobutene ( BCB ) [26]……………….……………16
2-6-5氟化聚亞醯胺( Fluorinated Polyimide,FPI )………………..16
2-6-6 Parylene[28]………………………………………………….16
2-6-7聚亞芳香醚高分子…………………………………………..17
2-6-8氟化非晶碳膜簡介[30-45]……………………..………….17
2-7化學氣相沈積法[46-53]……………………………………………20
2-7-1簡介…………………………………………………….…….21
2-7-2 CVD基本原理……………………………………………….22
2-8電漿簡介………………………………………………………..…..23
2-8-1交流式電漿…………………………………..………………25
2-8-1-1電漿原理[50,54-56]………………………..………….25
2-8-1-2電漿電位………………………………………………29
2-8-2電漿聚合膜[62]…………………………………...…………29
2-8-3電漿處理[54-55, 62-63]………………………………..…….32
2-8-3-1高分子材料的表面改質[62, 65-66]…………………..34
2-8-3-2高分子材料表面的電漿作用[54, 62, 67]…………….35
2-9折射率[69-70]………………………………………………………35
2-10介電性質[53, 70]……………………………………..……………36
2-11研究目的……………………….………………………………….38
參. 實驗步驟……………………………………………………..…….39
3-1基材清洗……………………………….…………………………...39
3-2前驅物的選擇………………………….…………...………………39
3-3電漿輔助化學氣相沈積系統…………………………………...….39
3-4實驗流程……………………………….………………………..….40
3-5氟化非晶碳膜的性質分析…….…………………………...………45
3-5-1化學分析電子儀(ESCA)……………….……………..……..45
3-5-2歐傑電子能譜儀(AES)…………………………………...….45
3-5-3傅立葉轉換紅外光譜儀(FTIR)…………………...…………46
3-5-4掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)…………………………...………46
3-5-5原子力顯微鏡(AFM)…………………………………….…..46
3-5-6橢圓測試儀…………………………………………………..47
3-5-7黏著性測試…………………………………………………..47
3-5-8機械性質測試…………………………………………….….48
肆. 結果與討論……………………………………………………...…51
4-1薄膜成份分析…………………………………………………..…..51
4-1-1薄膜表面成份分析……………………………………….….51
4-1-2薄膜整體成份分析及均勻性……………………………..…54
4-1-3傅立葉轉換紅外光譜儀分析………………………………..56
4-1-4 表面氟化現象……………………………………………….63
4-1-5 氟化非晶碳膜成份總結………………………………...…..64
4-2氣體流量比效應……………………………………………………64
4-2-1沉積速率……………..……………………………………....64
4-2-2薄膜氟碳比…………………………………………………..68
4-2-3薄膜折射率…………………………………………………..68
4-3製程壓力效應………………………………………………………71
4-3-1沈積速率………………………………………….………….71
4-3-2薄膜氟碳比…………………………………………………..74
4-3-3薄膜折射率…………………………………………………..74
4-4電漿功率效應……………………………………………………....77
4-4-1沈積速率……………………………………………………..77
4-4-2薄膜氟碳比……………………………………………..……79
4-4-3薄膜折射率…………………………………………………..79
4-5基板溫度效應…………………………………………………..…..83
4-5-1沈積速率………………………………………………..……83
4-5-2薄膜氟碳比…………………………………………………..85
4-5-3薄膜折射率…………………………………………………..85
4-6製程參數的總結……………………………………………………88
4-7氟化非晶性碳膜之性質………………………………………...….89
4-7-1不同氟碳比率ESCA鍵結分析……………………...………89
4-7-2熱穩定性……………………………………………………..93
4-7-3附著性測試…………………………………..………………93
4-7-3-1 Ar電漿前處理對基材附著性之影響…………..…….93
4-7-3-2 高低氟碳比薄膜對基材附著性之影響……………..96
4-7-4機械性質量測…………………………………………….….98
4-7-5表面形態與粗糙度………………………………………..…98
4-7-6 氟化非晶性碳膜之性質總結………………………..…….102
4-8電漿處理……………………………………………………….….105
4-8-1電漿處理功率對薄膜成份及粗糙度的影響………………105
4-8-2電漿處理時間對薄膜表面成份及粗糙度的影響…………109
4-8-3 Ar電漿處理後氟碳膜性質…………...…………………....109
伍. 結論……………………………………………………………….117
陸. 參考文獻………………………………………………………….118
柒. 未來研究方向…………………………………………………….126
圖目錄
圖2-1 多層金屬內連線結構[3]………………………………...……….4
圖2-2 元件尺寸與時間延遲的關係圖[4]………………………………4
圖2-3 雙大馬士革製程[8]………………………………………..……..8
圖2-4 旋轉塗佈法( Spin Coating)之步驟[14]…………………….…..10
圖2-5 溶劑添加有機高分子後之成膜收縮現象[15]…………………12
圖2-6 HSQ薄膜經熱處理步驟後之結構變化[24]…………………....15
圖2-7 BCB之單體結構[3]…………………………………..…………15
圖2-8 Pareylene F及Pareylene N之結構[13]……………………...…..18
圖2-9 FLARETM1.0及2.0之結構[29]………………………………….18
圖2-10 化學氣相沈積的主要沈積步驟[48]…………………………..24
圖2-11 電漿內部各物種之行為[54]……………………………..……26
圖2-12 顯示AC電漿產生器的應用。(a)硬體配置(b)~(d)分別顯示AC電漿內帶電粒子在不同狀態下的運動行為(e)RF電漿的整體行為[50]………………………………………………………27
圖2-13顯示不同RF電漿產生器的電極板板面設計對RF電漿的影響。(a)A1<<A2 (b)A1=A2 (c)A1>>A2。右側曲線顯示電漿的電漿電壓Vp及RF電壓V(t)對時間t的操作關係[60]……...….30
圖2-14 顯示RF電漿因電極板面積不等所衍生自偏壓現象。(a)偏壓發生前(b) 偏壓發生後[61]…………………………….……31
圖2-15 高分子材料表面的電漿作用形態[64]………………………..33
圖2-16 材料四種極化機構之示意圖[70]……………………....……..37
圖2-17 介電常數隨頻率變化之示意圖[70]…………………….…….37
圖3-1 PECVD之操作系統示意圖……………...…………..………..41
圖3-2 PECVD機台外觀(a)鍍膜腔體與操作面板(b)混合箱部份…..42
圖3-3 質量控制器(MFC)內部結構示意圖……………………….…..43
圖3-4 實驗流程圖………………………………………………….….44
圖3-5 附著性量測示意圖………………………………………..……49
圖3-6 毫微刻痕測試標準的負荷─壓痕位移關係圖[71]…….………50
圖4-1 一般氟化非晶碳膜表面掃描圖譜,製程條件為氣體流量比CF4/C2H2=16,製程壓力300 mTorr,電漿功率110 W、基板溫度100 ℃…..................................................................................52
圖4-2 一般氟化非晶碳膜之表面化學位移分析圖譜 (a)表面C1s圖譜 (b)表面F1s圖譜。製程條件為氣體流量比CF4/C2H2=16,製程壓力300 mTorr,電漿功率110 W、基板溫度100 ℃……..…...53
圖4-3 一般氟化非晶碳膜之內部化學位移分析圖譜 (a)內部C1s圖譜 (b)內部F1s圖譜。製程條件為氣體流量比CF4/C2H2=16,製程壓力300 mTorr,電漿功率110 W、基板溫度100 ℃………….55
圖4-4 濺射時間對氟含量的影響(a) 0~430 s (b) 0~120s,薄膜厚度為62.5 nm…....................................................................................57
圖4-5 濺射時間對氟含量的影響(a)0~1200 s (b) 0~180s,薄膜厚度為283 nm………….........................................................................58
圖4-6 AES縱深分析,薄膜厚度為(a)83 nm(b)62.5 nm……...……......59
圖4-7 AES表面掃描圖譜………………………………………….…..60
圖4-8 不同氟碳比例氟碳膜的FTIR光譜 (a) F/C~0.08 (b) F/C~0.22 (c) F/C~0.33 (d) F/C~0.51…………………………………………61
圖4-8 不同氟碳比例氟碳膜的FTIR光譜 (a) F/C~0.08 (b) F/C~0.22 (c) F/C~0.33 (d) F/C~0.51……………………………………..…..62
圖4-9 CF4氣體百分比對沈積速率的影響……………………….……65
圖4-10 CFx自由基與高能粒子隨CF4百分比變化之定性示意圖..…..67
圖4-11 綜合高能粒子與CFx自由基變化所得沈積速率趨勢示意圖.69
圖4-12 CF4氣體百分比對氟碳比的影響…………………….………..70
圖4-13 CF4氣體百分比對折射率的影響…………………………..….72
圖4-14 製程壓力對沈積速率的影響……………………………...….73
圖4-15 製程壓力對氟碳比的影響………………………………..…..75
圖4-16 製程壓力對折射率的影響……………………………………76
圖4-17 電漿功率對沈積速率的影響………………………………....78
圖4-18 電漿功率對自偏壓的影響………………………………...….80
圖 4-19 電漿功率對薄膜氟碳比的影響………………………...……81
圖4-20 電漿功率對折射率的影響………………………………....…82
圖4-21 基板溫度對沈積速率的影響……………………………..…..84
圖4-22 基板溫度對氟碳比的影響………………………………...….86
圖4-23 基板溫度對折射率的影響……………………………………87
圖4-24 不同氟碳比率之C1s 曲線吻合圖譜 (a) 0.51 (b) 0.33 (c) 0.22 (d) 0.08……………………………………………………………90
圖4-24 不同氟碳比率之C1s 曲線吻合圖譜 (a) 0.51 (b) 0.33 (c) 0.22 (d) 0.08…………………………………………………...…….…91
圖4-25 F/C~0.45試片退火前後之FTIR圖譜退火前(b)退火後….......95
圖4-26 典型氟化非晶碳膜的橫截面SEM照片……………………100
圖4-27 條件為500 mTorr,75 W,CF4/C2H2=14,100 ℃,沈積速率約為124 nm/min之AFM立體圖…………………...………101
圖4-28 條件為700 mTorr,75 W,CF4/C2H2=14,100 ℃,沈積速率約為130 nm/min之AFM立體圖……………………….…..103
圖4-29 條件為500 mTorr,180 W,CF4/C2H2=14,100 ℃,沈積速率約為95 nm/min之AFM立體圖………………………….....104
圖4-30 不同電漿處理功率對薄膜氟碳比(F/C)的影響……………108
圖4-31 不同電漿處理功率對薄膜表面氧碳比(O/C)的影響……….108
圖4-32 50 W Ar電漿處理後之AFM立體圖…………………………110
圖4-33 100 W Ar電漿處理後之AFM立體圖……………………..…111
圖4-34 不同電漿處理時間對薄膜氟碳比(F/C)的影響………….….112
圖4-35 不同電漿處理時間對薄膜表面氧碳比(O/C)的影響…...…..112
圖4-36 Ar電漿處理5秒後之AFM立體圖……...………………...…113
圖4-37 Ar電漿處理60秒後之AFM立體圖…………………………114
圖4-38 不同電漿處理時間對薄膜折射率的影響……………..……116
圖4-39 不同電漿處理功率對薄膜折射率的影響…………………..116
表目錄
表2-1 鋁、銀、金、銅內連線材料相關性質的比較[6]…………………..6
表4-1 不同氟碳比例的鍵結分析比例……………..…………...…….92
表4-2 修利法與曲線吻合法所得氟含量之比較………………..……94
表4-3 熱處理之後薄膜成份比較……………………………………..94
表4-4 Ar電漿前處理的條件……………….………....………….…..97
表4-5 膠帶測試附著性之結果………………………………….…….97
表4-6 微硬度儀測試條件……………………………………………..99
表4-7 微硬度儀測試結果………………………………………..……99
表4-8 電漿處理條件…………………………………………………106
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