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研究生:陳孟鈺
研究生(外文):Chen Meng-Yu
論文名稱:旋轉對具不同肋條配置之渦輪機葉片內冷卻流道熱流場之影響(附錄:離心式風機流場特性之研究)
論文名稱(外文):Rotating Effects on Heat and Fluid Flows in a Simulated Turbine Blade Internal Cooling Passage with Various Rib Arrangements (Appendix: Flow Characteristics in a Centrifugal Fan)
指導教授:劉通敏劉通敏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liou Tong-Miin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:動力機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:225
中文關鍵詞:旋轉肋條
外文關鍵詞:rotationrib
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:458
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:122
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
轉動機械之工業用途很廣,然而因其內部流場之量測極為困難導致相關流場數據缺乏,設計上往往必須仰賴試誤法;又為避免局部熱應力集中,傳統熱電偶點式溫度數據量測宜以非干擾性之場式溫度場量測取代,以披露溫度場之不均勻性;本文旨在探討旋轉管道內之流體動力特性及熱傳增益與均勻性之問題:
本部份之研究利用LDV(雷射都卜勒測速法) 與TLCT(暫態液晶熱傳量測法)量測具90°肋條之二通路旋轉管道(模擬渦輪機葉片內冷卻流道)其紊流流場與熱傳分佈,另外亦量測管壁壓力分佈,探討旋轉效應、180度彎管與肋條配置對流場結構、熱傳增益以及壓損之影響。總共探討三種不同之肋條排列方式:貼壁式(attached)、非貼壁式(detached)與非貼壁/貼壁式(detached/attached),所有肋條為方形截面且非貼壁式肋條離壁面的間距與肋條高度比為0.38,而肋條高度與管道高度比以及肋條間距與肋條高度比分別為0.136與10,這些參數值之選定係依據先前靜止管道所歸納出之最佳值。熱傳實驗的雷諾數(Reynolds number)與旋轉數(Rotation number)分別介於2500~40000與0~0.8。實驗結果主要探討旋轉數對局部與平均紐賽數、平均速度、紊流動能、紊流頻譜與積分尺度、壓力係數分布以及摩擦係數之影響。藉由詳細的流場結構與熱傳分布的量測,已將旋轉效應明確的顯現出來。於非貼壁式肋條的實驗,有關壁面噴流與肋條上緣分離剪力層下衝流相互作用對熱傳增益與壓損之影響文中有詳細的探討。結果發現,非貼壁式肋條可有效的消除旋轉管道貼壁式肋條後緣所產生的局部熱點,於第一管道(徑向外流)之迎風壁(Leading wall)與第二管道(徑向內流)之背風壁(Trailing wall),較貼壁式肋條擁有較佳之熱傳係數,但是,於另外二個壁面則是相反的。另外,非貼壁式肋條相對於貼壁式肋條擁有較佳之熱傳均勻性,但是壓力損失較大。根據貼壁式與非貼壁式肋條之實驗結果,本文提出一較佳之肋條配置方式(非貼壁/貼壁式),可提供工程師於實際設計時的參考,其整體熱傳增益在定常質量流率(Constant flow rate)下可達Nup/Nu0 = 4.57,在定常輸送功率(Constant pumping power)下可達Nup/Nu0* = 2.58。對工程應用而言,在所變化之參數範圍內不論何種肋條配置方式,在第一管道與第二管道之迎風壁與背風壁的管道平均熱傳係數皆與旋轉數呈線性關係。另外,摩擦係數與旋轉數亦具有線性的關係,此可作為渦輪機葉片設計者的參考。另藉由紊動速度頻譜的量測可發現,於靜止下,規則性的渦流逸放(Vortex shedding)只發生在前二對肋條內,其逸放的頻率為520Hz,相對的史卓赫數(Strouhal number)為0.2,此值與先前學者有關靜態鈍體尾流之渦流逸放的結果相符合;而在旋轉狀態下(公開文獻中未曾有過旋轉管流之速度擾動頻譜量測),此渦流逸放的現象並沒有發生,因此渦流逸放在具離壁式肋條之旋轉管道熱傳增益方面並未扮演任何角色。本文之紊流積分尺度分析顯示在近第一通道迎風壁與背風壁的泰勒紊流時間積分尺度(Taylor integral time scale)分別隨旋轉數增加呈線性增加與減少,而積分時間尺度減少顯示紊流渦漩壽命減短,紊流混合增加,因此背風壁熱傳增益隨旋轉數增加而增加。

Rotating machines are widely encountered in industrial applications. However, it is very hard to measure their internal flow fields. As a result, the relevant fluid flow information is scarce in the open literature and their designs often rely on trial and errors. Moreover, although heat transfer results based on thermocouple readings have provided valuable information for reference, they gave actually regional averaged values instead of local values. In view of this fact, non-intrusive and full-plane heat transfer measurement techniques are preferred to reveal heat transfer inhomogeneity and in turn thermal stress concentration information in rotating coolant channels. This study is concerned with the characteristics of fluid flow as well as heat transfer enhancement and uniformity.
Transient thermochromic liquid crystal thermography (TLCT), a laser-Doppler velocimeter, and pressure transducers have been used to measure the local heat transfer, velocity, and pressure drop distributions, respectively, in a rotating two-pass square duct with 90° ribs on the leading and trailing walls. Three types of rib configurations are considered: attached, detached, and detached/attached rib cases. All ribs were square in cross-section and the ratio of detached-distance to rib-height was 0.38. The rib-height/duct-height ratio and the pitch/rib-height ratio were 0.136 and 10, respectively. These values of parameters were selected according to previous results of stationary coolant ducts. The duct Reynolds number was varied from 2500 to 40000 and rotation number ranged from 0 to 0.8 for heat transfer experiment. Results are presented of local and regional averaged Nusselt number, mean and turbulent velocity components, turbulent kinetic energy, pressure coefficient distributions and variation of friction factor with rotation number. For detached ribbed case, the competition between convection effect of the wall jet and downwash effect of the rib-top separated shear layer on the heat transfer augmentation is addressed in detail. Rib detachment is found to enhance heat transfer on the leading wall of the first outward pass and on the trailing wall of the second inward pass over as compared to the attached rib case. The trend is reversed on the other two walls. Nevertheless, detached ribs provide more uniform heat transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls than attached ribs but higher pressure loss. According to the measured results of attached and detached ribbed cases, this study suggests a better rib configurations (detached/attached case) installed in the rotating internal coolant duct for practical reference of designing a turbine blade internal coolant channel. The case of detached/attached ribs can attain passage averaged heat transfer augmentation of Nup/Nu0 = 4.57 under a constant flow rate and Nup/Nu0* = 2.58 under a constant pumping power. For engineering reference, the passage averaged Nusselt number ratios on the leading and trailing walls of the first and second passes can be correlated as linear functions of rotation number for attached, detached, and detached/attached ribbed cases in the parameter range examined. Moreover, simple expressions are also developed to linearly correlate the friction factor with rotation number for smooth wall, attached, detached, and detached/attached ribbed cases. Power spectral analysis of the fluctuating velocity demonstrates that the vortex shedding only occurs behind the first two rib pairs for the stationary case. The predominant shedding frequency is 520 Hz correspond to a Strouhal number 0.2 which is in good agreement with the bluff-body wake flow results of the previous researchers. When the coolant duct is rotated, there is no predominant frequency can be found in the fluctuating velocity spectrum, suggesting that vortex shedding does not play a role in the heat transfer enhancement of rotating coolant duct. It should be pointed out that there are no measurements of fluctuating velocity power spectrum under rotating condition in the previous studies. The spectral analysis further indicates that the integral time scale near the leading and trailing walls increases and decreases linearly with increasing rotation number. A decrease in the turbulent integral time scale denotes a decrease in the lifetime of eddy breakup and, in turn, the enhancement of turbulent mixing or heat transfer. This observation provides the rationale for the increased heat transfer augmentation on the trailing wall of the first pass with increasing rotation number.

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT v
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS viii
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x
NOMENCLATURES xvii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1
CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL CONFIGURATION 2-1
2-1 Literature Survey 2-1
2-1-1 Heat Transfer 2-1
2-1-2 Flow Field 2-8
2-2 Objectives 2-11
2-3 Experimental Apparatus and Conditions 2-13
2-3-1 Test Model 2-13
2-3-1-1 Rotating Facility 2-13
2-3-1-2 Coolant Flow System 2-14
2-3-1-3 Test Section 2-15
2-3-1-3-1 LDV Test Model 2-15
2-3-1-3-2 Heat Transfer Test Model 2-16
2-3-2 Instrumentation 2-16
2-3-2-1 LDV System 2-16
2-3-2-2 Transient Liquid Crystal Imaging System 2-17
2-3-2-3 Pressure Measurement System 2-18
2-3-2-4 Flow Visualization System 2-18
2-3-3 Test Conditions 2-18
2-4 Theory and Governing Equation of Liquid Crystal Thermometry 2-19
2-5 Calibration of Liquid Crystal 2-21
2-6 Data Uncertainty 2-22
2-6-1 Fluid Flow Measurements 2-22
2-6-2 Heat Transfer Measurements 2-22
2-6-3 Pressure measurements 2-25
CHAPTER 3 FLUID FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN A ROTATING SQUARE DUCT WITH ATTACHED 90° RIBS 3-1
3-1 Flow Visualization Results 3-1
3-1-1 Fluid Flow for Smooth Duct 3-1
3-1-2 Flow Visualization Results for Ribbed Duct — Staggered 90° Ribs 3-3
3-1-3 Flow Visualization Results for Ribbed Duct — Inline 90° Ribs 3-4
3-2 Heat Transfer Results 3-5
3-2-1 Detailed Local Nu Distribution 3-5
3-2-2 Regional Averaged Nu Distribution 3-7
3-3 Fluid Flow Results 3-10
3-3-1 Flow Patterns at Inlet Reference Station 3-10
3-3-2 Flow Development Around the Turn in Z* Planes 3-11
3-4 Relation between Fluid Flow and Surface Heat Transfer Results 3-14
3-5 Summary 3-16
CHAPTER 4 FLUID FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN A ROTATING SQUARE DUCT WITH DETACHED 90° RIBS 4-1
4-1 Heat Transfer Results 4-2
4-1-1 Detailed Local Nu Distribution 4-2
4-1-2 Regional Averaged Nu Distribution 4-2
4-2 Fluid Flow Results 4-4
4-3 Relation between Fluid Flow and Surface Heat Transfer Results 4-7
4-4 Thermal Performance and Heat Transfer Uniformity 4-8
4-5 Power Spectral Analysis 4-9
4-6 Summary 4-13
CHAPTER 5 HEAT TRANSFER IN A ROTATING SQUARE DUCT WITH DETACHED/ATTACHED 90° RIBS 5-1
5-1 Detailed Local Nu Distribution 5-2
5-2 Regional Averaged Nu Distribution 5-2
5-3 Effect of Rib Configurations on Heat Transfer 5-3
5-4 Effect of Reynolds Number on Heat Transfer 5-6
5-5 Results of Pressure Drop Measurements 5-8
5-5-1 Local Pressure Coefficient 5-8
5-5-2 Averaged Friction Factor 5-10
5-6 Summary 5-12
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6-1
6-1 Conclusions 6-1
6-2 Contributions 6-4
6-3 Recommendations 6-6
ABSTRACT (Appendix A) A-ii
NOMENCLATURES (Appendix A) A-iii
APPENDIX A FLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN A CENTRIFUGAL FAN A-1
A-1 Literature Survey A-1
A-2 Objectives A-4
A-3 Experimental Apparatus and Conditions A-5
A-3-1 Test Rig A-5
A-3-2 LDV System A-6
A-3-3 Pressure Measurement System A-7
A-3-4 Test Conditions A-7
A-4 Data Uncertainty A-8
A-5 Results of the Fluid Flow Measurements A-8
A-5-1 Velocity Vector Field Inside a Blade Passage A-8
A-5-2 Flow Visualization in the Tongue Region A-10
A-5-3 Flow Distribution in the Tongue Region A-11
A-5-4 Flow Pattern at the Volute Outlet A-12
A-6 Summary A-12
A-7 Conclusions and Recommendations A-13
A-7-1 Conclusions A-13
A-7-2 Contributions A-14
A-7-3 Recommendations A-14
REFERENCES R-1
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