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研究生:黃莉雯
研究生(外文):Li-wen Huang
論文名稱:高速內容交換器上的URL查詢引擎設計
論文名稱(外文):A Novel URL Lookup Engine for Content-Aware Multi-gigabit Switches
指導教授:黃能富黃能富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nen-Fu Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:44
中文關鍵詞:URL查詢CAM
外文關鍵詞:URL lookupCAM
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在目前的網際網路技術中,最常被使用的服務是網頁服務(web service)。而叢集式的網站伺服器已經被證明是建立網頁服務的最佳方式。它不但可以提高網頁服務的效能,還可以大量的增加網站伺服器可服務的容量。在這個領域中有許多研究嘗試讓叢集式網站伺服器中的調度器(dispatcher) 使用封包中高階的資訊來做網頁請求(request) 導向,使用請求封包裡面的 URL 來做封包分流,因此在決定導向的時候就必須要看到封包中的 URL 資訊。為了要達到快速的 URL 分流,我們利用 URL 查詢來加速導向的速度。在傳統的 URL 查詢方式中,常利用雜湊函數和樹狀資料結構來達到 URL 查詢的目的,但是這兩個方法不是會造成衝撞(collision) 便是查詢的速度太過緩慢。本論文提出一個快速的 URL 查詢機制,利用到 CAM 來作為基本的硬體架構,不但可以支援 URL 的完全比對,還可以提供 URL 的前置比對 (prefix matching),使得這整個 URL 查詢的機制具備擴充性跟彈性。本架構利用基本的硬體來達到 URL 查詢,而且可以在常數時間 (constant time) 裡面達到查詢的目的,這樣快速的 URL 查詢引擎架構,可以大量的提高內容交換器 (content switch) 和其他使用到高階 URL 資訊應用的效能。

Cluster-based servers are proven to be the best solution to build high-performance, scalable, and reliable Internet Web servers. A number of researches try to enable the dispatcher in cluster-based web servers to route the users requests based on higher layer information, so more detail information such as URLs in the content of packets will be used for dispatching decisions. Hashing functions and tree structure are used to achieve the goal of URL lookup, but they will cause the problem of collision and slow speed. This thesis presents a fast URL lookup mechanism that uses CAM as the basic hardware architecture. Our scheme not only supports exact matching of URLs, but also provides URL prefix matching to provide greater expansibility and flexibility. The proposed scheme takes constant time to lookup an URL and provides high scalability. With the support of our fast URL lookup engine, the performance of content-aware switches and other applications requiring content information can be largely improved.

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Previous works 4
2.1 Content-aware switching 4
2.1.1 Request Distribution (LARD) 5
2.1.2 URL-Aware Redirection 8
2.1.3 Distributed Request Distribution 10
2.2 URL lookup schemes 12
2.2.1 Hashing 13
2.2.2 URL Compression Tree 14
Chapter 3 URL Lookup Scheme 17
3.1 Lookup Architecture 17
3.2 Basic Exact Lookup Mode 20
3.2.1 Insertion Phase 20
3.2.2 Searching Phase 23
3.2.3 Deletion Phase 25
3.3 Symbol Prefix Lookup Mode 26
3.3.1 Insertion Phase 27
3.3.2 Searching Phase 28
3.3.3 Deletion Phase 31
3.4 TCAM Prefix Lookup Mode 31
3.4.1 Insertion Phase 31
3.4.2 Searching Phase 34
3.4.3 Deletion Phase 36
Chapter 4 Analysis 38
Chapter 5 Conclusions 42
Bibliography 43

[1] Internet Weather Report (IWR). Available online at http://www.mids.org
[2] T. Schroeder, S. Goddard, B. Ramamurthy. “Scalable Web Server Clustering Technologies”, IEEE Network , Volume: 14 Issue: 3 pp.38 —45, 2000
[3] V. Pai, M. Aron, G. Banga, M. Svendsen, P. Druschel, W. Zwaenepoel, and E. Hahum. “Locality-Aware Request Distribution in Clustered-based Network Servers”, Proceedings of ASPLOS-VIII, 1998
[4] C. S. Yang and M. Y. Luo. “Efficient Support for Content-based routing in web server clusters”, Proceedings of the 2nd USNIX Symposium on Internet Technology and Systems, 1999
[5] “Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1”, RFC 2068, IETF
[6] M. Aron, D. Sanders, P. Druschel and W. Zwaenepoel. "Scalable Content-aware Request Distribution in Cluster-based Network Servers", In the Proceedings of the USENIX 2000 Annual Technical Conference, San Diego, CA, June 2000
[7] Apostolopoulos, G., V. Peris, P. Pradhan, and D. Saha. L5: “A Self Learning Layer-5 Switch”, IBM Research Report 21461, 1999.
[8] J. Song, E. Levy, A. Iyengar, and D. Dias. “Design Alternatives for Scalable Web Server Accelerators”, Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software, 2000
[9] Z. Genova, Z., K.J. Christensen, “Challenges in URL switching for implementing globally distributed Web sites”, Parallel Processing, 2000. Proceedings. 2000 International Workshops on , 2000 , Page(s): 89 —94
[10] “Uniform Resource Locators (URL)”, RFC 1938, IETF
[11] Altera Intellectual Property Megafunctions web page [online]. Available on WWW: http://www.altera.com/products/ip/altera/t-alt-pci.html.
[12] NetLogic Network Search Engine (NSE3128) web page [online]. Available on WWW: http://www.netlogicmicro.com/datasheets/nse3128.html
[13] Cisco, “Cisco Content Services Switch”. Available on WWW: http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/webscale/css/index.htm
[14] “Alteon Web Switching Portfolio”. Available on WWW: http://www.nortelnetworks.com/products/01/alteon/index.html”
[15] Maltz, D.A., and P. Bhagwat. “TCP Splicing for Application Layer Proxy Performance”. IBM Research Report RC 21139, 1998.
[16] Ariel Cohen, Sampath Rangarajan and J. Hamilton Slye. “On the Performance of TCP Splicing for URL-aware Redirection”. USENIX Symposium on Internet Technologies and Systems, 1999
[17] B. Scott Michel and Konstantinos Nikoloudakis and Peter L. Reiher and Lixia Zhang, “URL Forwarding and Compression in Adaptive Web Caching”, INFOCOMM , pp. 670-678, 2000
[18] Google Research Project. Available at WWW: http://www.searchengineworld.com/google/
[19] Woo Hyun Ahn, Sang Ho Park and Daeyeon Park, “Efficient Cooperative Caching for File Systems in Cluster-Based Web Servers”, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Cluster Computing, pp. 326 —334, 2000
[20] PMC Sierra White Paper, “URL-Based Switching”, Issue 1, February 2001
[21] PMC Sierra White Paper, “Towards Content-based Classification”, February 2001.

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