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研究生(外文):Te-Chou Su
論文名稱(外文):Multicast Communications for Streaming Video Applications
指導教授(外文):Jia-Shung Wang
外文關鍵詞:multicaston-demand multicaststreaming videovideo-on-demandcompressed videoInternetnetwork congestion
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由於多點傳播技術可以有效地降低串流影音應用的伺服器負載與網路頻寬的需求,因此成為主要研究方向之一。目前的多點傳播服務可以允許接收者在相同的時間讀取相同的多點傳播資料,然而,在隨選的視訊服務中,使用者點播影片的時間通常不一樣這樣,上述「相同時間」的讀取限制就降低了多點傳播的好處。為了解決這個問題,我們提出了一種新型態的多點傳播服務,稱之為「隨選多點傳播」(on-demand multicast communications)。在這種新的多點傳播服務裡,即使接收者在不同的時間點播相同的節目,他們仍然可以共享一個隨選多點傳播的頻寬。為了將資料準時的送達各個接收者,我們利用 sliding interval cache 方法在路由器上增加了一個時間控制機制去控制封包交換出去的時間。在這個機制中,封包將暫時儲存在路由器的緩衝記憶體,然後再依照特定的時間將封包送到不同的出口。因此,透過協調封包在每一個路由器停留的時間,我們可以將影音串流在不同的時間送到不同的接收者。然而,這樣的擴充使得多點傳播的路徑選擇變得更為複雜,因為不僅僅要考慮路徑的問題,我們也必須要考慮緩衝記憶體大小與位置以產生足夠的串流時間差。在這篇論文中,我們正式定義隨選多點傳播的問題並且證明這樣的問題在一般的網路結構下是 NP-compete 的問題。因此,我們將針對以下的網路結構提出不同的路徑選擇演算法:1) 完全的網路結構,在此結構下,我們並不需要考慮路徑與緩衝記憶體的位置,只需要考慮緩衝區的大小就已經足夠。2) 樹狀的網路結構,在此結構下,我們必須另外考慮緩衝區的位置,然而,由於每一個使用者到串流伺服器只有唯一的路徑,因此我們並不需要考慮路徑的問題。3) 一般的網路結構,在這種架構下,所有的條件包括緩衝區的大小、位置與路徑都必須要考慮進來。經由我們的實驗數據顯示,我們所提出的方法比目前以多點傳播為基礎的協定有更好的效能。路由器內只需要少許的緩衝區,數萬個使用者將可以同時分享同一個隨選多點傳播的頻寬。除此之外,本篇論文也將討論VCR的控制,容錯處理和流量等控制,以建構一個穩定的系統。最後,我提出在網際網路上實做應用層的隨選多點傳播系統所會面對的挑戰與解決的方案。

Multicast communications is one of the major researches to reduce the required server load and network bandwidth in streaming video applications. However, current multicast services only allow receivers to share the multicast stream at the same time. This access time limitation diminishes the benefit of multicast communications since users usually access the video at distinct times in ‘on-demand’ streaming services. To address this problem, this dissertation proposes a new type of multicast services, called on-demand multicast communications, to allow receivers to access the multicast stream at distinct times. To deliver multicast data to receivers on time, we add a timing control on intermediate nodes (router or proxy) to control the packet forwarding time via the sliding interval caching. In this control, incoming packets are temporarily stored in node buffer and then forwarded to different output interfaces at different times. Therefore, carefully coordinating the packet delay on each intermediate node, a source stream can be delivered to receivers at the specified delay times. However, this extension makes the multicast routing problem more difficult; not only a routing path should be determined but also the buffers should be allocated to generate appropriate buffering delay. In this dissertation, we formally define the on-demand multicast routing problem and prove this problem in general graphs is NP-complete. For this reason, we study the on-demand multicast routing algorithms in three topologies: 1) complete graphs, in which no path routing and buffer positioning are considered. Only the buffer size should be determined when routing a request. 2) trees, in which the position of allocated buffers should be further considered but the path is still not a routing issue because there is only one path from a receiver to the source. 3) general graphs, in which all criteria including path routing, buffer allocation and buffer positions must be considered. In our simulations, the presented on-demand multicast communications has an outstanding performance than current multicast based protocols. With a little buffer allocated on routing nodes, only a few server streams are required to simultaneously serve ten thousands of clients. In addition, this dissertation also presents the mechanisms to handle VCR functions, fault conditions and flow controls to build a robust system. Finally, we present the challenges and the solutions when implementing the application-layer on-demand multicast communications on the non-QOS supported Internet.

中文摘要 iii
Abstract v
List of Figures vii
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
Chapter 2. Multicast Related Works 8
2.1. Batching 8
2.2. Periodic Broadcasting 9
2.3. Patching / Stream Tapping 11
2.4. Chaining 12
Chapter 3. On-demand Multicast Communications 14
3.1. The Timing Control Mechanism 14
3.2. On-Demand Multicast Routing 16
3.3. Problem Complexity of On-demand Multicast Routing 20
Chapter 4. Optimal Routing Algorithms on Complete Graphs 23
4.1. Off-line Optimal Routing Algorithm 24
4.2. On-line Optimal Routing Algorithm 27
4.3. The Application on Peer-to-Peer Based Streaming Systems 31
4.4. Performance Comparison with Chaining Based Schemes 35
4.5. Performance Comparison with Patching and Periodic Broadcasting Schemes 43
Chapter 5. Heuristic Algorithms on Tree-based Network Topology 46
5.1. Single Node Algorithm 46
5.2. Heuristic Algorithm I 49
5.3. Heuristic Algorithm II 51
5.4. Performance Studies 53
Chapter 6. Heuristic Algorithm on General Graphs and its Applications 56
6.1. A Heuristic Algorithm on General Network Topologies 57
6.2. Control Protocol for Heuristic Algorithm 60
6.3. Performance Studies 62
Chapter 7. Protocols and Prototype Implementation 66
7.1. Basic Control Protocols and VCR support 66
7.2. The Streaming Platform 68
7.2.1. System Architecture 68
7.2.2. Basic System Flows 71
7.2.3. Selection Strategies of Video Sources 73
7.2.4. Piece-wise Control and Fault Handling 75
7.2.5. Stripping Control 78
Chapter 8. Conclusions and Future Works 80
References 83

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