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研究生:陳國雄
研究生(外文):Ko-Shung Chen
論文名稱:行動無線系統中束縛式連線遷移之研究
論文名稱(外文):On the Study of Constrained-Connections Migration in Mobile Wireless Systems
指導教授:黃能富黃能富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nen-Fu Huang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:行動無線系統束縛式連線路徑群播樹光波路徑光波樹半光波路徑遷移
外文關鍵詞:mobile wireless systemsconstrained-connectionpathmulticast-treelightpathlight-treesemi-lightpathmigration
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由於在行動計算與無線通訊領域上的驚人發展與迅速部署,使得人們對行動無線服務的需求也隨之增大。這些需求將迫使許多研究人員必須探查開發更多新穎且合用的技術。近來已有相關技術成功地將無線存取技術整合到現存的高速固接網路,藉此形成一個大的行動無線網路系統。在這個大的系統中,無線部分提供了行動設備的存取,而有線部分則延伸了行動服務的範圍。
無線系統與有線系統主要的差異點在於使用者具有不確定的移動性(Mobility)。為了提供通透的換手服務及有效的資源使用率,行動無線網路內對作用中的連線(Active Connection)必須妥適地維護。這些連線包括單點對單點、單點對多點、及多點對多點等異質(Heterogeneous)通訊需求。而一個顯見的系統目的就是要提供行動設備的無線寬頻存取(Wireless Broadband Access)。此外,為了滿足多樣化新型式的多媒體應用需求,對於束縛式連線(Constrained-Connection)的管理控制更須小心,以確保服務品質(QoS)得以達成。因此,研發具有效益的束縛式連線遷移策略以供行動設備漫遊(Roaming),實為提供優質服務之重要關鍵。
為使資源利用率能最大化而且對既定的服務品質仍能確保,本篇論文將研究在行動無線網路系統中,束縛式連線遷移的相關問題;並提出具有效益的相對管理策略,以期為新世代的無線行動系統提供優質的服務方案。我們探討相關的束縛式連線遷移問題計有:
一、首先在行動無線系統中提出束縛式路徑遷移(Constrained-Paths Migration)策略:利用分歧拘束(Branch-and-Bound)的策略將系統中成本太高或違反束縛條件的路徑修正,使得系統資源能有效運用,藉以容納更多的使用者。此外,束縛式路徑在遷移的過程中,系統能夠提供快速的換手(Handoff)措施以及資訊傳遞時的同步(Synchronization)機制。
二、接著在泛無線系統中提出束縛式群播樹遷移(Constrained-Trees Migration)策略:延伸束縛式路徑遷移策略,處理束縛式群播樹遷移問題。藉由群播樹中路徑的分享(Sharing)來降低群播樹佔用的系統資源,因此現存使用者換手與新進使用者加入的成功率均大為提高。同時我們也處理了資訊傳遞時的同步問題與群播使用者同時遷移(Concurrent Migration)的問題。值得一提的是,這個束縛式群播樹遷移策略也合適於全動式無線網路系統(如:Ad-Hoc Network)。
三、最後在光波分割多工(Wavelength Division Multiplexing)無線網路中提出束縛式光群播樹遷移(Constrained-Optical-Trees Migration)策略:因應新世代可能出現的光波分割多工無線網路系統,利用光波遷移(Wavelength Migration)與專屬路徑遷移(Dedicated-Path Migration)策略的交互(toggling)使用來維護具有效益的束縛式光群播樹。光波遷移的機制使得系統維護機制的額外負擔(Overhead)大為減少,而專屬路徑遷移的機制則使得整體束縛式光群播樹的成本有效降低。

Demand of mobile wireless services for people has been created greatly due to the phenomenal development and rapid deployment in the area of mobile computing and wireless communications. The demand forces numbers of researchers to explore and develop a variety of new and applicable technologies, one of which is successfully to integrate the wireless access techniques into the existing high-speed wireline (fixed) communication networks to form one big mobile and wireless system. In such a big system, the wireless portion is to provide the access of mobile terminals while the wired part is to extend the area of mobile services. One obvious goal is to provide wireless broadband access that offers point-to-point, multipoint and point-to-multipoint communications between fixed and/or mobile terminals. The wireless system has a major difference from the wired system that is users’ mobility. In order to providing transparent handoff services and efficient resource utilization, the active connections over the mobile and wireless networks must be maintained carefully. Moreover, for satisfying a variety of new multimedia applications, the management of the constrained connections has also to be seriously controlled for achieving the QoS guarantee. Connection migration for the roaming terminals becomes an important issue for the service availability. For maximizing the resources utilization and still providing QoS guarantee within mobile and wireless systems, this study investigates the constrained connections migration problem in three aspects.
First, we examine the constrained unicast-connections migration problem and then propose a Constrained Paths Migration Scheme (CPMS) for finding low-cost path, which still satisfies the end-to-end delay constraint over mobile and wireless networks. Instead of using straightforward shortest path approach, CPMS adopts feasible-search optimization strategy to content the dynamics of mobile wireless networks. CPMS automatically recognizes inefficient paths and efficiently migrates them to the efficient ones. CPMS operates in a branch-and-bound manner to reduce control overheads. CPMS maintains low-cost paths with QoS constraints during user roaming. The timing synchronization of data flow is also controlled successfully. Simulation will be used to reveal that CPMS can accommodate a larger number of paths in mobile wireless systems.
Next, we extend CPMS and consider the multicasting problem in the context of generic wireless systems. Specifically, a novel Constrained Tree Migration Scheme (CTMS) is created to support multicast services in mobile wireless networks. The salient features of the novel CTMS include: 1) automatically recognizing the inefficiency of the multicast trees, then migrating them to better ones, while maintaining the QoS guarantees specified by mobile users; 2) conserving network resources by maintaining a low-cost multicast tree, thus accommodating more users; 3) operating efficiently in a truly distributed manner through event driven and diffusing computations, thus increasing the degree of scalability; 4) synchronizing data transmission flow for transparency during the tree migration, and thus providing seamless handoff control. Furthermore, the novel CTMS also handles the concurrent migration problem effectively within the wireless system, thus eliminating the oscillation paradox. Extensive simulation results show that CTMS can significantly reduce the resources used per multicast tree, thus achieving both low handoff-dropping/join-blocking rate and high resource utilization.
As WDM-based optical networks are becoming the right choice for the next-generation Internet networks to transport high-speed IP traffic, the leading role of wireless ATM (WATM) networks will be undoubtedly replaced with wireless WDM (WWDM) networks for providing high quality of services to mobile users. Meanwhile, multicasting has played an increasingly important role in many conventional and emerging applications, such as teleconferencing and distributed games. Although efforts to support multicasting over WATM networks have been considerable, multicasting over WWDM networks has seldom been addressed. Conventional operations for setting up and tearing down optical connections in WDM networks are not intuitively applied to WWDM networks due to the provisioning of handoff. Additionally, the multicast optical tree constructed may become inefficient due to the lack of sufficient and available wavelengths. Following the movement of roaming members, the tree may thus expand and consume excessive resources, and may violate the QoS constraint. Therefore, how to provide efficient support for multicasting over the new WWDM networks merits careful examination.
Finally, a Constrained Optical Tree Migration Scheme (COTMS) is proposed to support multicast services in WWDM networks. COTMS is an enhancement of CTMS for adapting to the characteristic of WDM-based backbone networks. CTMS can properly deal with the constrained tree migration problem for generic wireless networks, and COTMS inherits the efficiencies of CTMS entirely. Simulation results show that COTMS can markedly reduce the resources used per multicast tree, thus achieving both low handoff-dropping/join-blocking rate and high resource utilization. More importantly, we demonstrate how COTMS incorporating crossover optical switch discovery can be used to support real-time traffic for heterogeneous (i.e., unicast and multicast) connections in a uniform and unified manner. The proposed scheme is also suitable for routing over fully mobile (ad hoc) networks in which multiple frequencies are used for data communications.

ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
CONTENTS
1.INTRODUCTION
1.1 Wireless System Architectures
1.2 Related Issues for Mobility Management
1.2.1 Location Management
1.2.2 Handoff Management
1.3 Resource Management: From Wired to Wireless
1.3.1 Routing for Constrained Unicast Connection
1.3.2 Routing for Constrained Multicast Connection
1.3.3 Routing for Constrained Optical Multicast Connection
1.4 Study Organization
2.CONSTRAINED PATH MIGRATION SCHEME
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Wireless Operating Network Architecture
2.3 Related Work
2.4 Problem Formulation
2.5 CPMS
2.5.1 Routing Information
2.5.2 The Operations of CPMS
2.5.3 Examples for the Demonstration of CPMS Scheme
2.6 Correctness and Complexity of CPMS
2.7 Simulation
2.7.1 Simulation Model and Assumptions
2.7.2 Simulation Results
2.8 Conclusions
3.CONSTRAINED TREE MIGRATION SCHEME
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Existing Approaches
3.3 Network Architecture and Problem Definition
3.3.1 Network Architecture
3.3.2 Problem Definition
3.4 CTMS
3.4.1 Terminologies and Local Information
3.4.2 CTMS Operations
3.4.3 Demonstrative Example of CTMS
3.5 Discussion
3.6 Simulation
3.6.1 Simulation Model and Assumptions
3.6.2 Simulation Results
3.7 Conclusions
4.CONSTRAINED OPTICAL TREE MIGRATION SCHEME
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Related Work
4.3 Problem Definition
4.4 COTMS
4.4.1 Procedures of COTMS
4.4.2 Brief Review of CTMS
4.4.3 The WMS
4.5 Simulation
4.5.1 Simulation Model and Assumptions
4.5.2 Simulation Results
4.6 Conclusions
5.CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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