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研究生:趙士銘
研究生(外文):Shi-Ming Zhao
論文名稱:新一代網際網路交換式路由器
論文名稱(外文):Next Generation IP-switching Routers
指導教授:黃能富黃能富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nen-Fu Huang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:新一代網際網路交換式路由器服務品質傳輸線速度路由器吞吐量封包轉送速率封包辨識分類服務品質之控制
外文關鍵詞:Next Generation IP-switching RoutersQoSlink speedsrouter throughputpacket forwarding ratespacket classificationQoS control
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隨著網際網路應用的空前成長,對於高效能路由器的需求正與日俱增。而為了在這類高效能路由器中,提供複雜的加值性服務並且持續滿足良好之服務品質,有五項重要的設計關鍵必須加以考量。那就是:傳輸線速度,路由器吞吐量,封包轉送速率,封包辨識分類,以及服務品質之控制。事實上,前二項設計關鍵目前皆垂手可得。而在本篇論文中,我們著重於後三項關鍵要素,以便設計新一代網際網路交換式路由器。
設計新一代網際網路交換式路由器的關鍵要素之一,就是路由查詢的機制。對於每個輸入的網際網路封包而言,為了決定其下一站為何,網際網路的路由必須在路由查詢上,進行最長前置位元資訊之比對。在本篇論文中,我們提出一快速的單點路由查詢機制,該機制僅需極小量的高速隨機存取記憶體並且能夠透過管線設計方式加以實現。當透過管線設計方式加以實現時,所提之機制能夠達到每一次的記憶體存取便可以獲得一個路由查詢之結果。以現階段RAMBUS公司所出品的存取週期為0.84奈秒之隨機存取記憶體而言,該機制幾乎達到每秒12億個路由查詢,而這比目前任何已商品化的路由查詢機制還快出很多。
此外,為了有效率地提供複雜的加值性服務給許多具備不同需求的使用者,新一代網際網路交換式路由器必須以極快的速度進行封包辨識分類。封包辨識分類需要根據預先定義好的分類規則去剖析每個封包,並且依照符合的分類規則中擁有最高優先權者去對封包進行分類。本篇論文提出一能夠應用於需要支援幾十億位元資訊處理能力,同時並提供加值性服務給各式各樣網際網路應用的路由器中所需的封包辨識分類之機制。
正如大家所知道的,網際網路已有一段漫長的時間一直都是盡力式的網路。然而,這樣的網路行為已完全無法滿足形形色色的網際網路應用。而為了持續提供良好的服務品質,新一代網際網路交換式路由器也必須於每個封包完成辨識分類後,具成本效益地提供服務品質的控制。在本篇論文中,我們設計一個速率控制的機制。該機制能夠迅速地決定到達封包的離開時間,然後準時地將封包傳送出去。運用此一速率控制機制,新一代網際網路交換式路由器既不會產生任何毫無作用的假造封包也不會浪費任何頻寬,而且仍然能夠達到使用者所喜好的以速率為基礎的服務品質控制方式。

With the unprecedented growth of Internet applications, demands of powerful routers are rapidly increasing. In such routers, five key design issues must be illustrated for providing sophisticated value-added services and to continue to furnish good quality of service (QoS). Those are: link speeds, router throughput, packet forwarding rates, packet classification, and QoS control. Actually, the first two issues are currently readily available. In this dissertation, we inspect the last three issues to design next generation IP-switching routers.
One of key design issues for next generation IP-switching routers is the routing lookup scheme. For each incoming IP packet, the IP-routing is required to perform a longest-prefix match on the routing lookup in order to determine the packet’s next hop. In this dissertation, we propose a fast unicast routing lookup scheme, which only needs tiny high-speed RAM and can be implemented using a hardware pipeline. When implemented using a hardware pipeline, the proposed scheme can achieve one routing lookup every memory access. With current 0.84ns RDRAM, this scheme furnishes approximately 1,200×106 routing lookups/second, which is much faster than any current commercially available routing lookup scheme.
Besides, next generation IP-switching routers must perform packet classification at high speeds for efficiently providing sophisticated value-added services to users with a variety of requirements. Packet classification requires parsing each packet according to predefined filters (or rules), and classifying the packet based on the matched filter with the highest priority. This dissertation presents a scheme that can be applied to accomplish packet classification in routers, which need to support multigigabit processing capacities and to furnish value-added services for widely varying Internet applications.
As everybody knows, the Internet is always a best-effort network for a long time. Such behavior, however, does not satisfy widely varying Internet applications any more. In order to continue to furnish good QoS, next generation IP-switching routers also have to cost-effectively perform QoS control after classifying each packet. In this dissertation, we design a rate control scheme. This scheme can rapidly determine the departure time of the arrival packet, and then transmit out the packet on schedule. Using this rate control scheme, next generation IP-switching routers neither generate any dummy packet nor waste any bandwidth, but still accomplish user-friendly rate-based QoS control manner.

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) 2
1.2 IP-switching Router Architecture 3
1.3 Next Generation IP-switching Router Architecture 5
1.4 Outline of the Dissertation 7
Chapter 2 Related Work 9
2.1 Fast Routing Lookup Schemes 9
2.2 Packet Classification Problem 11
2.2.1 Generalized Packet Classification 11
2.2.2 IP Packet Classification 12
2.3 QoS Control Technology 12
2.3.1 Traditional Queuing-based QoS Control 14
2.3.2 Nonqueuing-based Active Rate Control for TCP 15
Chapter 3 A Novel IP-routing Lookup Scheme 17
3.1 Direct-lookup Scheme 17
3.2 Indirect-lookup Scheme 18
3.3 The Proposed Fast Routing Lookup Scheme 24
3.4 Hardware Implementation 32
3.5 Performance Analysis 35
Chapter 4 A Flexible Ternary Match Scheme for Packet Classification 38
4.1 Packet Classification VS. Ternary Match 38
4.2 Basic Idea of the Proposed Ternary Match Scheme 41
4.2.1 1×1 Ternary Match Scheme 41
4.2.2 1×2 Ternary Match Scheme 45
4.2.3 1×W Ternary Match Scheme 48
4.2.4 2×W Ternary Match Scheme 50
4.3 The Proposed Ternary Match Scheme 52
Chapter 5 A Novel Rate Control Scheme 57
5.1 Basic Idea of the Proposed Rate Control Scheme 57
5.2 Ideal TDQ-RCS 59
5.3 Approximation TDQ-RCS 64
5.4 Approximation TDQ-RCS with MSS 70
Chapter 6 Conclusions 74
Bibliography 76

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