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研究生:楊濠瞬
研究生(外文):Hao-Shun Yang
論文名稱:低成本射頻前端積體電路之研究與實現
論文名稱(外文):Area and Cost Effectiveness of RF Front-End Integrated Circuits
指導教授:龔 正
指導教授(外文):Jeng Gong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電子工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:170
中文關鍵詞:互補式金氧半單晶改善多層並聯改善更多的多層並聯品質因素自我共振頻率可適應調配性雙頻
外文關鍵詞:CMOSmonolithicimproved multilevel-shunting (IMS)further improved multilevel-shunting (FIMS)quality factor (Q)self-resonant frequency (fSR)configurabledual-band
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  • 被引用被引用:0
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  • 下載下載:104
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本論文主題在於使用標準互補式金氧半製程,研究和實現具有單晶低成本的射頻前端積體電路之方法。第一章為簡介,而論文內容可分為兩部份:第二章和第三章為第一部份,主要分別為元件層級;第四章和第五章為第二個部份,主要為電路和系統層級。最後,第六章為結論和未來展望。
第二章介紹並推導了單晶電感的理論和各項參數,並提出改善多層並聯結構的電感,不但改善了品質因素(15%),也大幅改善了自我共振頻率(25%),更進一步具有可配置及適應性的能力,使其適用於任何的規格,因此可以達到最佳化,進而擁有高競爭力。另外,將其推廣至對稱的型式,使其適用於差動電路,並提出改善更多的多層並聯結構之對稱電感,在幾乎相同感值下大大的改善了自我共振頻率(50%),使得其適應性和最佳化範圍更廣,藉由較高的電感除以電容比,可降低電路的功率消耗和改善電路的特性,相較於傳統兩個非對稱電感,其節省了百分之二十五的面積佔據。在大感值的應用方面,微型3-D電感是不錯的選擇,但在差動電路中,我們提出了微型3-D對稱電感的結構和想法。
第三章介紹並闡述了單晶變壓器的理論和各項參數,經由第二章的改善多層並聯結構之觀念,我們可以將此應用於傳統平面變壓器中,進而在主和副線圈幾乎相同感值下來調整其通過和拒斥頻段,因此具有可配置的能力。為了進一步降低成本,我們提出微型3-D變壓器,由於其為對稱的型式,使其十分適合取代差動電路中的兩個非對稱電感;相較於傳統平面變壓器,其節省了大約百分之七十的面積;相較於傳統疊接變壓器,其具有較寬的可用頻寬和較高的自我共振頻率。
第四章介紹雙頻接收器的演進,以及我們所採用的同時雙頻接收器架構,接著則是呈現所製作的同時雙頻低雜訊放大器,以及為了改善雜訊指數和鏡頻拒斥比的新穎型帶拒濾波器,相較於傳統電感、電容並聯共振網路其2.4-GHz和5.3-GHz的介入損耗達到最小,而且其鏡頻(3.4-GHz)拒斥深度改善超過12dB,使其非常適合使用於同時雙頻接收機中,作為射頻鏡頻拒斥,用來克服降頻和低頻部份的增益和相位不平衡誤差所導致的鏡頻拒斥比退化。
第五章介紹電感電容壓控振盪器,藉由同時切換電感和變電容器,可達到雙中心振盪頻率,故所製作的雙頻壓控振盪器將可克服隨著製程精進,操作電壓持續降低,造成變電容器可調整的範圍減小之問題。
第六章總結了之前各章節的結果,並加強說明低成本、高競爭力的目的和成效,以及未來的展望。

The purpose of this work is to use a standard CMOS process to research and implement the solutions of monolithic and low cost RF front-end integrated circuits. The first chapter is an introduction, and the content of this thesis is divided into two parts. The first part is chapter 2 and 3, in which the device level is presented. Chapter 4 and 5 is the second part and the circuit and system level is presented. Finally, chapter 6 is the conclusion and future work.
The theory and parameters of monolithic inductor are introduced and derived in chapter 2 and the structure of our proposed improved multilevel-shunting (IMS) spiral inductor is presented. It not only improves the quality factor, Q (15%) but also improves the self-resonant frequency, fSR (25%) greatly. Moreover, the configurable and adaptive ability to make it applicable to any specification, therefore the optimization can be done and the high competition is achieved. Besides, we expand it to symmetric configurations for the differential circuit applications, and the structure of our proposed further improved multilevel-shunting (FIMS) symmetric spiral inductor is presented. There is up to 46% improvement in fSR and without deteriorating the Q compared to the conventional multilevel-shunting (MS) spiral inductor with almost the same inductance, thus the configurable and optimal range is extended. By virtue of leading to a higher L/C ratio, the power consumption and characteristic of the circuit can be improved. Furthermore, it saves 25% area occupied compared to two asymmetric inductors. For the large inductance applications, the miniature 3-D inductor is a good choice. For the differential circuits, the structure and idea of miniature 3-D symmetric inductor are presented.
The theory and parameters of monolithic transformer are introduced and derived in chapter 3. By way of the idea of IMS structure in chapter 2, we can use it in conventional interleaved transformers to adjust their pass and reject band with almost the same inductance of primary and secondary coils, therefore also having the configurable ability. In order to further reduce the cost, we present the miniature 3-D transformer. Due to its symmetric configuration, it is very suitable to replace two asymmetric inductors in differential circuit. Moreover, it saves about 70% area compared to the conventional planar transformer, and has wider available bandwidth and higher self-resonant frequency compared to the conventional stacked transformer.
The evolution of dual-band receiver and the concurrent dual-band receiver we used are introduced in chapter 4. The concurrent dual-band low noise amplifier and novel notch filter for improving noise figure and image-reject ratio are implemented and measured. It achieves the less insertion loss in 2.4-GHz and 5.3-GHz band compared to conventional LC parallel resonant network and the depth of image (3.4-GHz) rejection improves over 12dB. Therefore, it is very suitable in concurrent dual-band receiver for RF image-rejection to overcome the image-reject ratio degrading due to gain and phase imbalances in down-conversion and baseband parts.
The LC tank voltage-controlled oscillator is presented in chapter 5. By switching the inductor and varactor simultaneously, the dual center frequencies are achieved. Therefore, the dual-band VCO can overcome the problem resulted from the tuning range of varactor is limited as the process progress and supply voltage scaled down.
The results are summarized in chapter 6 and we expound the goal and effect of low cost and high competition, and the future work.

Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Monolithic Inductive Passive Components:
Inductor - Device Level
Chapter 3: Monolithic Inductive Passive Components:
Transformer & Balun - Device Level
Chapter 4: Concurrent Dual-Band Receiver
- Circuit & System Level
Chapter 5: Dual-Band Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
- Circuit & System Level
Chapter 6: Conclusions

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