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研究生:黃建忠
研究生(外文):Chian-Chung Huang
論文名稱:應用於敏感工業負載之新型電壓驟降補償器控制法則
論文名稱(外文):A New Control Algorithm of Voltage Sag Compensator for Sensitive Industrial Loads
指導教授:鄭博泰
指導教授(外文):Po-Tai Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:電壓驟降凹陷濾波器
外文關鍵詞:Voltage Sagnotch filter
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由於近來工、商業廣泛地使用精密的機具或電腦系統等設備,這類負載高可靠度的功能,相對使業界對電力品質的要求大為提高。而據調查顯示,大部份的電力品質問題皆起因於電力中斷與電壓驟降。這些問題,通常會導致工業製程的停機或誤動作,甚至會造成設備的損壞。
本論文提出一新型的電壓驟降補償器系統。其主要架構為一電壓源反流器,透過一變壓器與饋線串聯,並將市電電壓送入數位信號處理器(digital transistor processor,DSP)作同步參考座標軸(synchronous reference frame)的轉換來計算補償電壓,當市電系統的電壓發生驟降時,利用脈波寬度調變的技術,來控制反流器的輸出電壓。當電壓驟降發生時,本控制器可快速地注入補償電壓,使重要負載的端電壓保持正常,以避免跳機。另外,本論文將考量電壓突波等暫態現象所造成的干擾,在控制器中設計適當的機制加以過濾,以避免補償器的誤動作。
本論文將以電腦模擬及原型電路的實驗來驗證所提控制方法的效能,並提出一設計準則,來估算補償器的儲能電容器的容量。論文共分七個章節,第二章為文獻回顧,分析電壓補償器的功能;第三章將描述串聯電壓驟降補償器之操作原理;第四章就所提之架構,以電磁暫態(EMTP)軟體加以模擬與驗證;第五章介紹實驗室的原型測試電路,以硬體來驗證所提的控制方法;第六章為設計實例,說明補償器的儲能電容之計算;第七章則為本論文之結論。

The wide-spread use of sophiscated equipments and computer systems in the industrial and the commercial sectors leads to higher demand on the quality of electric power. Survey shows that most of the power quality problems are associated with voltage sags and momentary interruptions. Such problems often result in the shutdown of industrial processes, or even equipment damages in some extreme cases.
A new voltage sag compensator system for sensitive industrial loads will be proposed in this thesis. The proposed system consists of a voltage source inverter connected in series with the load via a coupling transformer. The inverter operates in pulse-width modulation mode to produce three-phase AC voltages. Upon detection of voltage sags, the inverter instantly injects compensation voltages to maintain the voltage at the sensitive load. A special mechanism to attenuate system transient disturbances like voltage spikes is also included to avoid any false triggering of the compensator.
The proposed system will be verified by computer simulation and prototype experimental results. A design process for sizing the energy storage capacitor of the system is also presented.

誌謝 …………………………………………………………. I
中文摘要 ……………………………………………………. II
英文摘要 ……………………………………………………. III
目錄 …………………………………………………………. IV
圖目錄 ………………………………………………… VIII
表目錄 ……………………………………………………. XVII
一、緒論
1.1、電力擾動問題簡介 ……………………………….. 1
1.2、研究方向 ………………………………………….. 1
1.3、論文架構 ………………………………………….. 2
二、文獻回顧
2.1 簡介 ……………………………………………….. 3
2.2 動態電壓補償器的相關制法則 ………………….. 4
2.2.1 正、負序迴路分別補償之控制法 ………… 4
2.2.2 向量控制補償法 …………………………... 6
2.3 電壓變動的相關規範 …………………………….. 8
2.4 總結 ……………………………………………….. 9
三、操作原理
3.1 簡介 ……………………………………………….. 10
3.2 控制器之設計方式 ……………………………….. 10
3.2.1 控制原理與系統方塊圖 ………………….. 10
3.3 濾波器設計之考量 ……………………………….. 14
3.4 反流器啟動之決策 16
3.5 結論 ……………………………………………….. 17
四、模擬結果與分析
4.1 簡介 ……………………………………………….. 19
4.2 線性負載測試 …………………………………….. 20
4.2.1 單相接地故障 ……………………………... 20
4.2.2 三相接地故障 ……………………………... 24
4.3 非線性負載測試 ………………………………….. 27
4.3.1 單相接地故障 ……………………………... 27
4.3.2 三相接地故障 ……………………………... 31
4.4 總結 …………………………….…………………. 35
五、實驗結果與分析
5.1 簡介 …………………………….…………………. 40
5.2 線性負載測試 …………………………….………. 42
5.2.1 單相接地故障 ……………………………... 42
5.2.2 三相接地故障 ……………………………... 47
5.2.3 電容器組切入之開關暫態 ………………... 52
5.3 非線性負載測試 …………………………….…… 53
5.3.1 單相接地故障 ……………………………... 53
5.3.2 三相接地故障 ……………………………... 60
5.4 補償器對電驛(Relay)的影響 ……………………. 66
5.5 總結 …………………………….…………………. 69
六、設計實例
6.1 簡介 …………………………….…………………. 74
6.2補償器之設計考量 ……………………………….… 74
6.3系統之完整電路 …………………………….……… 75
6.4 線性負載 …………………………….……………. 78
6.5 非線性負載 …………………………….………… 83
6.6 結論 …………………………….…………………. 89
七、結論 ………………………………………………….. 90
參考文獻 ……………………………………………………. 92
附錄
A 硬體電路實作 …………………………………….. 95
A-1 交流電壓輸入至DSP的電路 ……………. 95
A-2 鎖相迴路(phase locked loop) ……………. 95
A-3 閘極驅動電路(gate driver) ………………... 96
A-4 DSP之PWM訊號輸出控制電路 ………… 97
A-5 旁路開關電路 …………………………… 97
A-6 反流器直流電壓電路 …………………….. 97
A-7 實體照片 ………………………………….. 99

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