# 臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

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 隨著科技的發展，多媒體的需求也與日俱增，很多用戶端的設備都需要多媒體的服務，隨著設備的不同所需的視訊訊號的解析度也會跟著不同，因此一個可以提供快速變換解析度的解碼器便異常重要。現在多數的解決辦法都朝向直接在離散餘弦轉換域上作解析度轉換的工作，但是大多數的論文都只提到如何對2的倍數做快速解調變，在這一篇論文裡，我們將提到如何快速的將視訊或影像訊號在離散餘弦轉換域上做任意倍數的解析度變換。 我們將提出一個方法可以在離散餘弦轉換域上對一數列做內插或壓縮的方法，這一個方法並不會增加原來的運算量，因為這一個方法只是把原來的數列乘上一常數，而這一個步驟可以跟轉碼器裡的量化步驟做在一起，接下來就是利用離散餘弦轉換本身的對稱性質對一個較小的離散餘弦轉換方塊做對應的反離散餘弦轉換然後把這些小塊的方塊組合成一塊大一點的方塊再對他做對應的離散餘弦轉換，由於選擇特殊的大小去做離散餘弦轉換和反離散餘弦轉換，所以相乘的結果可以使得最後的結果有很多零的項，而零的項並不會增加計算量，利用這一個特性可以使得計算量大大的減少，然後把我們的結果跟用雙線性的方法做出來的結果來比較會發現我們的結果的計算量少很多，而且我們方法的PSNR也比較高，因此我們的方法有比較好的結果。
 Due to the advances in technology, the demand on transmission of multimedia becomes greater than ever. Many subscriber devices need the service of transmitting multimedia. According to the resolution of each device, the resolution of the video will need to adapt to the specific device. Hence a transcoder which will provide the service of translating resolution efficiently becomes more and more important. Recently, most researches concentrate on translating the resolution in the DCT-Domain. However, most papers just dealt with how to scale the picture by “2”. In this thesis we will propose a fast algorithm on resolution translation in DCT-domain for any scale factors. We first propose a method to interpolate or decimate the DCT-domain sequence. This method won’t increase the original calculation capability, because the method needs to only multiply the original sequence by a scalar term, and this step can be combined into the quantization step in the transcoder. Then we take advantage of the symmetric property of DCT, preserve fewer low-frequency coefficients, and transform them back to spatial domain using smaller DCT. Then combine a proper number of them into a bigger block and transform them into DCT-domain using the proper DCT. Because we choose the size of block carefully, we will have many zero terms in the resulting matrices. Using this result we can save computation dramatically. Finally we compare our result with the bilinear scheme, and find that our scheme will have higher PSNR values and fewer calculation demand.
 Abstract i Table of Contents ii List of Figures iv Chapter 1: Introduction 1 1.1 Overview 1 1.2 Thesis Organization 3 Chapter 2: Overview of DCT-domain Video Transcoder 4 2.1 Structure of Video Transcoder 4 2.2 DCT Motion Compensation 7 2.2.1 DCT Properties 7 2.2.2 MC-DCT 7 2.2.3 MC-DCT using shared information 10 Chapter 3: Resolution Translation 14 3.1 Approach I 14 3.2 Approach II 16 Chapter 4: Decimation and Interpolation in DCT Domain 22 4.1 DTFT and DFT interpolation 22 4.2 DTFT and DFT decimation 25 4.3 Decimation and interpolation in DCT-domain 27 Chapter 5: DCT-Domain Image Size Change 35 5.1 Te Basic Idea 35 5.2 Down Sampling 42 5.2.1 Procedure 42 5.2.2 Mathematical Representation 45 5.3 Up Sampling 47 5.3.1 Procedure 47 5.3.2 Mathematical Representation 50 5.4 Complexity 52 Chapter 6: Simulation Result 54 Chapter 7: Conclusions and future works 65 References 67
 [1] S. F. Chang and D. G. Messerschmitt, “Manipulation and compositing of MC-DCT compressed video,” IEEE J. Select. Areas commun., vol. 13, pp. 1-11, Jan. 1995.[2] Junehwa Song and Boon-lock Yeo, “ A Fast Algorithm for DCT-Domain Inverse Motion Computation Based on Shared Information in a Macroblock,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 10, No.5 Aug. 2000.[3] Neri Merhav and Vasudev Bhaskaran, “ A Transform Domain Approach to Spatial Domain Image Scaling,” IEEE 1996.[4] Rakesh Dugad and Narendra Ahujs, “ A Fast Scheme for Image Size Change in the Compressed Domain,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 11, No.4 April. 2001.[5] Yuh-Feng Hsu, “ Scalable Video Codex Design for Direct Broadcasting Using Ka-Band,” PhD. Thesis, Nation Tsing Hua University ROC. Jun. 1998.[6] W. B. Pennebaker and J. L. Mitchell, JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993.[7] Y. Arai, T. Agui, and M. Nakajima, “ A Fast DCT-SQ Scheme for Images,” Trans. of the IEICE, E 71(11):1095, Nov. 1988.[8] Yuh-Reuy Lee, Chia-Wen Lin, and Cheng-Chien Kao, “A DCT-Domain Transcoder for Spatial Resolution Downconversion,”[9] Myung Jun Kim, Byung Cheol Song, Sung Kyu Jang, and Jong Beom Ra, “An Efficient Video Down Conversion Algorithm Using Modified IDCT Basis Functions,”[10] Jae-Beom Lee, “2-D Transform-Domain Resolution Translation,“ IEEE Trans. On Circuit and System for Video Tech. Vol. 10, No. 5, Aug. 2000[11] Qingwen Hu and Sethuraman Panchanathan, Senior Member, “ Image/Video Spatial Scalability in Compressed Domain,” IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, vol. 45, NO. 1, Feb. 1998[12] Kwang-deok Seo and Jae-kyoon Kim “ Fast Motion Vector Refinement for MPEG-1 to MPEG-4 Transcoding with Spatial Down-Sampling in DCT Domain.” IEEE 2001[13] Pedro A. A. Assuncao and Mohammed Ghanbari “ Transcoding Of MPEG-2 Video in the Frequency Domain,”
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 1 7.何明泉，林其祥，劉怡君，“文化商品開發設計之構思”，設計學報第一卷第一期，pp.1-15，1996。 2 14.屈賢明，“先進製造領域技術預測與技術選擇”，中國機械工程學會雙月刊，第228期，pp.10-22，1999.10。 3 26.管康彥，“顧客導向的組織變革”，http://www.managers.com.tw，EMBA世界經理文摘雜誌，2001。

 1 離散餘弦轉換至離散小波轉轉碼器之設計研究 2 以模板為基礎利用可行變的封閉曲線針對生物醫學影像做分割 3 可調式RSA和ECC密碼處理器設計 4 在多語者環境下之語者分割與語言辨認研究 5 JPEG2000編碼器晶片設計之研究 6 用一種類似分群組方式的演算法來做完全掃瞄設計過之電路的多重錯誤診斷 7 管線式處理器自動化測試程式產生器 8 嵌入式記憶體存取時間自我測試單元 9 微細胞無線網路系統之功率控制-利用強健式史密斯預測式濾波器 10 應用錯誤控制和雍塞控制之可伸縮性視訊傳輸 11 快閃記憶體控制器的探討及設計 12 視訊傳輸之內容為導向之可伸縮性編碼的模式決策 13 多重描述編碼應用於比對搜尋法之視訊傳輸 14 系統晶片嵌入式記憶體之低功率架構設計 15 真實亂數產生電路設計

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