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研究生:洪璿富
研究生(外文):Shiuan-Fu Hung
論文名稱:快閃記憶體控制器的探討及設計
論文名稱(外文):The Discussion and Design of Flash Memory Control
指導教授:鐘太郎
指導教授(外文):Tai-Lang Jong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:50
中文關鍵詞:虛擬/實際位址轉換結構資訊的快取快閃記憶體管理
外文關鍵詞:logical/physical address translationcache of structure dataflash memory management
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由於快閃記憶體備具了許多記憶元件的優點於一身,使得快閃記憶體在大型儲存裝置上的應用逐漸展露頭腳。但是用在儲存裝置上的快閃記憶體仍有一些限制需要克服,而隨著快閃記憶體製成上的進步,用來當做攜帶儲存裝置的快閃記憶卡的密度、容量一直增加,因此負責管理記憶卡中資料擺放的控制器該如何克服快閃記憶體先天的不便,這樣的課題也就顯得更為重要。於是本人利用軟體程式去模擬快閃記憶體以及一些快閃記憶體的特性,基於這樣的軟體模組去開發和探討快閃記憶體控制器的設計。有鑑於之前的一些研究都只是針對如何選擇快閃記憶體内區塊來清除,以減少快閃記憶體的使用率,但並未考慮到輕便的記憶卡所擁有硬體資源上可能有限制,所以本篇論文將承現一個較為完整、較符合現實考量的快閃記憶體控制的設計。在設計的快閃記憶體控制器模擬程式模組裡頭包括了幾個部份:虛擬/實際位址轉換、揮發性記憶體的利用、使用者資料的結構資訊、結構資訊的快取、以及之前已有相當多討論的快閃記憶體管理。在建構完整個控制器之後,則有一連串的測試和數據結果,並依照數據的分析再進行設計上的改進。而本篇論文所承現的設計方式和數據結果,相信對於往後有關快閃記憶卡控制器的設計能有相當的參考價值或當為一個比較的對象。

This thesis is a research about the design of flash memory control. As capacity of flash memory card grows, the design of flash memory control, which governs data in flash memory, is getting more important. We divide the issue of flash memory control design into several parts: logical/physical address translation, utilization of limited local memory, manners of caching data from flash memory to local memory and flash memory management. About those topics, a complete flash memory control model is built in this paper. Besides, the design has improved the speed of seeking free space and the tradition update-algorithm.
In flash memory management, the emphasis of cycle-leveling enhances the flash memory performance dramatically. It shows that besides good clean policy and fine data classification, cycle-leveling is also essential for flash memory management.
Finally, there will be a series simulation result which is computed from a developed software model of our design. It will be a strong proof of this design.

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Thesis Organization 2
Chapter 2 Introduction of Flash Memory 3
2.1 Flash Memory Array Organization 4
2.2 Basic Operations of Flash Memory 5
2.3 Summary 8
Chapter 3 Flash Card System 10
3.1 System Architecture 12
3.2 Card Architecture 13
3.3 Translation Table Structure 16
3.4 Examples of Read and Write 18
3.5 Summary 22
Chapter 4 Flash Memory Management 23
4.1 Log-Like Structure 24
4.2 Cleanup Operation (Garbage Collection)26
4.3 Cycle Leveling 30
4.4 Data Classification 32
4.5 Summary 33
Chapter 5 Simulation Analysis and Crash Prevention 34
5.1 Improvement in Writing Speed 35
5.2 Advance Improvement in Writing Speed 39
5.3 Writing Speed Analysis with Consideration of Clean-Up 41
5.4 Flash Memory Management Analysis 44
5.5 The Prevention of Power Crash 47
5.6 Summary 49
Chapter 6 Conclusion and Discussion 50
REFERENCE 51

[1] Samsung Electronics, “Data Sheet of Samsung NAND Flash Memory Chip: K9F3208W0A,” July 17th 2000.
[2] Microsoft Corporation, “Linear Flash Memory Devices on Microsoft Windows CE 2.1,” April 2000.
[3] Samsung Electronics, “Flash/ SmartMediaTM File System,” February 17th 2000.
[4] Mendel Rosenblum and John K. Ousterhout, “The Design and Implementation of a Log-Structured File System,” ACM Transactions on Computer System, Vol 10, No. 1, Pages 26-52, February 1992.
[5] Mei-Ling Chiang, Paul C.H. Lee, Ruei-Chuan Chang, “Managing Flash Memory in Personal Communication Devices,”
[6] Han-joon Kim, Sang-goo Lee, “A New Flash Memory Management for Flash Storage System,” IEEE, 1999.
[7] Yun-Peng Hung, “Research on the Flash Memory Management and Cleaning Policies in Mobile Devices,” Master Thesis, Department of Information Management, National Chi Nan University, June 2001.
[8] J. N. Matthews, D. Roselli, A. M. Costello, R. Y. Wang and T. E. Anderson, “Improving the Performance of Log-Structured File Systems with Adaptive Methods’,” Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles, Saint Malo, France, October 5-8, 1997.
[9] T. BLACKWELL, J. HARRIS, M. SELTZER, “Heuristic Cleaning Algorithms in Log-Structured File System,” Proceedings of the 1995 USENIX Technical Conference, pp. 277-288, New Orleans, LA, January 16-20, 1995.
[10] Mei-Ling Chiang, “A Study on the Design of Memory Based Embedded Storage Systems,” PhD Thesis, Department of Computer and Information Science, National Chiao Tung University, January 1999.
[11] Mei-Ling Chiang and R. C. Chang, “Cleaning Policies in Mobile Computers Using Flash Memory,” Accepted by Journal of Systems and Software.
[12] SD Group “SD Memory Card Specifications,” March, 2000.

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