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研究生:林玉惠
研究生(外文):Lin, Yuh-Huey
論文名稱:子音串簡化策略研究
論文名稱(外文):Interlanguage Variability: Studies on L2 Consonant Cluster Simplification
指導教授:曹逢甫曹逢甫引用關係王旭王旭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Prof. Feng-Fu TsaoProf. Hsu Samuel Wang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:161
中文關鍵詞:子音串簡化策略母音插入子音刪除子音替換語體對話者性別差異詞之長度
外文關鍵詞:consonant cluster simplificationvowel epenthesisconsonant deletionconsonant replacementstyleinterlocutorgenderword length
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本論文透過三個實驗,探討影響英語學習者詞首子音串簡化策略之因素,討論之因素有詞的長度、語體、性別、英文程度、與對話者。
實驗一探討詞的長度對學生選擇母音插入與子音刪除等二個策略的影響。本實驗錄製二十五位台灣大專學生在三種不同長度 (CCV, CCVC, CCVCV) 的假詞中使用此二個策略的情形。實驗結果發現,詞的長度並未對錯誤率造成顯著的影響。而在簡化策略方面,詞越長則學生使用子音刪除的頻率越高,詞越短則學生越常使用母音插入。然而統計結果顯示只有 CCV vs. CCVCV 與 CCVC vs. CCVCV 之間有顯著之差異。同為單音節之 CCV vs. CCVC之間並無顯著之不同。也就是影響簡化策略之因素為音節數,而非音段之多寡; 而不論是哪一種結構,造成雙音節結果之策略的總和均顯著大於造成單音節或三音節之策略之總和。此中國學生雙音節之傾向與前人對漢語音節 (Tsao, 1993; Tsou, 1975) 以及中國學生詞尾子音 (Heyer, 1986; Wang, 1995) 之研究結果相呼應。
實驗二討論的因素為語體,錄製二十位大專生在朗讀最小音異字對、單字表、句子、與會話等四種不同正式度的語體中,使用子音刪除、母音插入、與子音替換等三種策略的頻率。實驗結果顯示,學生在這四種語體的錯誤率並無顯著的差別。而受語體之正式度所影響的,是簡化策略的使用率: 越正式的語體,母音插入的頻率越高,相反的,子音刪除與替換的使用率就越低。此實驗結果之錯誤率部份與其他二個子音串研究 (Weinberger, 1987; Major, 1994) 之結果,均違反一般公認 “越正式正確率越高” 的定律。然而,如果我們將母音插入視為較輕微之錯誤 (“less erroneous”, Abrahamsson, 2001) 因為與子音刪除與替換相較之下,母音插入保留了所有基底結構的音,而使說話者的語句較易為聽話者了解 (Weinberger, 1987),那麼我們的實驗結果 “越正式母音插入率越高” 便符合 “越正式正確率越高” 之定律。
實驗三研究語體、英文程度、性別、與對話者等因素對 母音插入/子音刪除 之比例的影響。本實驗之方法與實驗三類似。唯受試者人數為四十人 (男女各二十位),而每一性別之中又依其英文程度分為兩組。此外,會話部份做兩次,一次與受試者之同學,一次與外籍老師。實驗結果顯示,除了英文程度之外,其他的因素均未對錯誤率造成顯著的影響。而在簡化策略部份,較正式的語體、程度高者、女性、以及女性受試者與同學會話部份之 母音插入/子音刪除 之比例均顯著高於較不正式的語體、程度低者、男性、以及女性受試者與外籍老師之會話。此研究結果除了符合實驗二之結論,即母音插入為較不嚴重之錯誤之外,也應證了女性為較體貼的說話者之理論 (e.g., Coates, 1993; Holmes, 1991)。
本論文為第一個探討性別、談話者與中介語音節結構之研究,實驗之結果,不僅讓吾人對中介語之音節結構以及子音串簡化策略有更深刻的認識、對當今中介語之理論 (如 Weinberger 的理論) 有所延伸、同時也架接了外語習得與社會語言學之理論。希望本研究之結果,能在英語教學,尤其是發音教學上的應用、以及外語習得或中介語現象之研究有所啟發與貢獻。
This thesis consists of three individual experimental studies each of which investigates certain factor(s) that might play some role in constraining L2 learners’ consonant cluster simplification. Study I examines the effect of word-length on Chinese learners’ choice of the two strategies vowel epenthesis and consonant deletion, Study II explores the effect of style or task formality on the learners’ use of the three simplification strategies vowel epenthesis, consonant deletion, and consonant replacement, and Study III is an even more comprehensive study, investigating a wider range of extra-linguistic factors such as gender, proficiency, and interlocutor on the epenthesis/deletion ratio. Results showed that (1) unlike “cluster length”, “word length” did not play a role in determining consonant cluster simplification; rather, the Chinese EFL learners’ choice of simplification strategies revealed the same preference for disyllabicity as demonstrated in previous studies on Chinese EFL word-final obstruents (Study I), (2) the proportion of epenthesis increased with increasing formality of the tasks (Study II), and (3) higher epenthesis/deletion ratio was obtained from more formal styles, female students, students of higher proficiency, and females’ conversation with their NNS peer. The results of the three studies not only contribute to the understanding of interlanguage syllable structures, build the bridge between SLA and sociolinguistic research, but also provide implications for EFL teachers and SLA researchers in their treatment of learners’ errors as well as formulation of hypotheses for future studies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xi
ABSTRACT xii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 SLA Research and Purpose of the Study 1
1.2 L2 Consonant Clusters 2
1.2.1 Error Rates 2
1.2.2 Error Types─Simplification Strategies 3
1.3 Scope of the Study and Perspectives 4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 L2 Acquisition of English Consonant Clusters 7
2.1.1 The MSD Model 7
2.1.2 Typological Markedness 11
2.1.3 Cluster Length and L2 Error Rates 13
2.2 L2 Studies on Cluster/Syllable Simplification Strategies 15
2.2.1 Syllable Simplification Strategies 16
2.2.2 Preference for Open Syllables─The Effect of Adjacent Sounds 18
2.2.3 Onset-Coda Asymmetry 19
2.2.4 Native Language Transfer─Chinese Disyllabicity 21
2.2.5 Functional Approach─Recoverability of Linguistic Contexts 22
2.2.6 Grammatical Factors─Lexical vs. Inflectional Forms 23
2.2.7 The Age/Proficiency Factor 24
2.3 L2 Studies on Sociolinguistic (Extra-linguistic) Factors 24
2.3.1 Style─Task Formality 24
2.3.1.1 Major’s (1994b) Study 25
2.3.1.2 Weinberger’s (1987) Study 26
2.3.2 Gender Differences 27
2.3.2.1. Prestige-consciousness 27
2.3.2.2 Acquisition Rate 28
2.3.2.3 Women as More Considerate Conversationalists 29
2.3.3 The Effect of Interlocutors─Accommodation Theory 30
2.4 Conclusion 31
CHAPTER 3 THE EFFECT OF WORD LENGTH 32
3.1 Background 32
3.1.1 Markedness and Cluster Length 32
3.1.2 Research Questions 33
3.1.3 Hypotheses 34
3.2 Method 34
3.2.1 Participants 34
3.2.2 Items 36
3.2.3 Procedure and Tasks 39
3.2.3.1 Learning the Pseudowords 40
3.2.3.2 The Production Task 40
3.2.4 Data collection and Transcription 41
3.3 Results and Discussion 42
3.3.1 Error Rates 42
3.3.2 Error Types─Simplification Strategies 43
3.3.2.1 Hypothesis I─Number of Segments 45
3.3.2.2 Hypothesis II─Number of Syllables 47
3.3.3 Preference for Disyllabicity 49
3.3.3.1 CCV 51
3.3.3.2 CCVC 52
3.3.3.3 CCVCV 54
3.4 Conclusion and Implications 56
3.4.1 The Research Questions 56
3.4.2 Implications for Future Research 58
3.4.3 Pedagogical Implications 59
CHAPTER 4 THE EFFECT OF STYLE 60
4.1 Rationale 60
4.1.1 Problems of Previous Studies 61
4.1.2 Hypotheses 62
4.2 Method 63
4.2.1 Participants 63
4.2.2 Items 63
4.2.3 Procedure and Tasks 65
4.2.3.1 Learning the Pseudowords 65
4.2.3.2 The Main Tasks 65
4.2.4 Data Gathering and Transcription 68
4.3 Results 69
4.3.1 Error Rates 69
4.3.2 Error Types (the Choice of Syllable Simplification Strategies) 70
4.4 Discussion 73
4.4.1 Error Rates in the Four Styles 73
4.4.2 Error Types─Simplification Strategies 75
4.4.2.1 Epenthesis 75
4.4.2.2 Deletion and Replacement 77
4.4.3 Learners’ Errors 77
4.5 Implications 78
CHAPTER 5 PROFICIENCY, GENDER, AND INTERLOCUTOR DIFFERENCES 80
5.1 Research Questions and Hypotheses 80
5.1.1 Learners’ Errors 80
5.1.2 Factors to be Examined 82
5.1.2.1 Style 82
5.1.2.2 Proficiency 83
5.1.2.3 Gender 83
5.1.2.4 Interlocutor 84
5.1.3 Hypotheses 84
5.2 Methods 86
5.2.1 Participants 86
5.2.2 Items 87
5.2.3 Procedure and Tasks 89
5.2.3.1 Learning the Pseudowords 89
5.2.3.2 The Main Tasks 90
5.2.3.3 Order of the Tasks 93
5.2.4 Data Gathering and Transcription 93
5.3 Results and Discussion 94
5.3.1 Error Rates 94
5.3.1.1 Style Differences 95
5.3.1.2 Proficiency Differences 97
5.3.1.3 Gender Differences 98
5.3.1.4 Interlocutor Differences 99
5.3.2 Error Types─Simplification Strategies 100
5.3.2.1 Style Differences─Hypothesis 1 101
5.3.2.2 Proficiency Differences─Hypothesis 2 103
5.3.2.3 Gender Differences─Hypothesis 3 104
5.3.2.4 Interlocutor Differences─Hypothesis 4 105
5.4 Implications 108
5.4.1 Error Rates Vs. Error Types 108
5.4.2 Simplification Strategies and the Four Hypotheses 108
5.4.3 Interaction Between the Factors 109
5.4.4 The Recoverability Principle 110
5.5 Summary 112
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUDING REMARKS 114
6.1 Reconsidering Learners’ Errors 114
6.2 Contributions to SLA and Sociolinguistic Research 115
6.3 Limitations of the Study 115
6.4 Future Research 116
REFERENCES 117
APPENDIX I-1 BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE 131
APPENDIX I-2 PSEUDOWORDS 132
APPENDIX I-3 GRAMMATICALITY JUDGMENT TEST 133
APPENDIX II-1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 135
APPENDIX II-2 PSEUDOWORDS 136
APPENDIX II-3 THE PRODUCTION TASKS 138
APPENDIX III-1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF THE PARTICIPANTS 144
APPENDIX III-2 ITEMS 146
APPENDIX III-3 PSEUDOWORDS 148
APPENDIX III-4 THE TASKS 151
APPENDIX III-5 TYPES OF ERRORS 160
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