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研究生:吳曉虹
研究生(外文):Hsiao-hung Iris Wu
論文名稱:漢語的謂語刪略與空缺
論文名稱(外文):On Ellipsis and Gapping in Mandarin Chinese
指導教授:梅廣梅廣引用關係蔡維天蔡維天引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuang MeiWei-tien Dylan Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:刪略空缺焦點
外文關鍵詞:ellipsisgappingfocus
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本文討論了兩種省略結構,也就是謂語刪略 (ellipsis) 與空缺 (gapping) 的問題。
首先,在英語中,我們可以觀察到,謂語在遭到刪略之後,總是需要do這個助動詞來填補才能合法;而雖然漢語中並沒有類似 do這樣功能的詞,我主張漢語還是有四種句法結構 (是字句、否定、情態助動詞、動詞) 牽涉了謂語省略。更進一步的來說,漢語中的謂語省略都可以用以焦點為基礎的分析架構下分析,其中焦點詞組 (Focus Phrase) 可以出現在動詞組 (VP) 或屈折詞組 (IP) 之上,這樣一來,完全詮釋原則 (Principle of Full Interpretation) 與刪略認可條件(Ellipsis Licensing Condition) 都可以得到滿足。基本上,這個刪略結構分析也可以應用到其他的語言上,每個語言在謂語刪略表面現象上的不同,只是此結構再和各語言中特定機制互動的結果。
在動詞空缺方面,雖然這個句法現象在英語及許多其他的語言中相當普遍,然而在本文中,我證明了這個結構在漢語是不存在的;也就是我們必須將真正的動詞空缺結構 (genuine gapping) 與漢語中發現的假動詞空缺結構 (quasi-gapping) 區分開來。而漢語中的假動詞空缺結構,我認為是一種將事件論元 (event argument) 作為隱性主題的主題-評論 (topic-comment) 句型。最後,透過了與古漢語的歷時比較,以及與英語等語言的共時比較,我們發現現代漢語中動詞空缺之所以不存在或許是由於它本質上缺少動詞組並列,而動詞組並列必須是動詞空缺存在的首要前提之緣故。

This thesis focuses on two kinds of elided structures, ellipsis and gapping.
In English VP ellipsis requires the presence of an auxiliary, while since there is no do-support in Chinese, one may simply assume that ellipsis does not happen in Chinese. However, I argue here that there are four syntactic configurations (shi-support, negation, modals, verbs) involving ellipsis in Chinese should be distinguished, which serve the same purpose as that of do-support in English. Moreover, ellipsis in Chinese can be captured under a focus-based analysis of ellipsis in which Focus Projection (FP) may be projected above VP or above IP; in this way, the Principle of Full Interpretation and Ellipsis Licensing Condition can both be satisfied. This ellipsis configuration is basically applicable to other languages, interacting with some language-specific mechanisms.
Verb gapping, which is a common practice in English as well as in many languages, is demonstrated here to be non-existent in Mandarin Chinese. Furthermore, I distinguish the genuine gapping from the quasi-gapping construction as found in Chinese, which, according to my analysis, should be the topic-comment construction in which the event argument serves as the covert topic. Finally, through diachronic comparison with Classical Chinese and synchronic comparison with English, I demonstrate that the non-existence of verb gapping in Modern Chinese might arise from its intrinsic lack of VP coordination.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2 VP ELLIPSIS IN MANDARIN CHINESE
2.1 Setting the Stage
2.2 Literature Review
2.2.1 LF Copy Analysis
2.2.2 PF Deletion Analysis
2.3 VP Ellipsis in Mandarin Chinese and its Analysis
2.3.1 Data
2.3.1.1 Shi-Support
2.3.1.2 Negation
2.3.1.3 Modals
2.3.1.4 Verbs
2.3.2 Analysis -- Focus Projection in Mandarin Chinese
2.4 Implications and Cross-Linguistic Correlations
2.5 Summary
CHAPTER3 VERB GAPPING IN MANDARIN CHINESE
3.1 Setting the Stage
3.2 Literature Review
3.2.1 Hankamer (1973), Kuno (1976)
3.2.2 Li (1988)
3.2.3 Jayaseelan (1990)
3.2.4 Johnson (1994,1996)
3.2.5 Paul (1999)
3.2.6 Tang (2001)
3.3 The Problems with the Previous Analyses
3.3.1 ATB Movement
3.3.2 Rightward movement
3.3.3 Tang
3.4 The Quasi-gapping Construction in Mandarin Chinese
3.5 Gapping Construction: Its Implications and
Typological Correlations
3.5.1 Gapping and Coordination
3.5.2 Gapping in Classical Chinese
3.5.3 Gapping in Dutch and German
3.6 Summary
CHAPTER4 CONCLUSION

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