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研究生:黃瑞恆
研究生(外文):Ray Huang
論文名稱:主題串在中文口述與書面敘事的比較
論文名稱(外文):Topic Chain in Chinese Spoken and Written Narrative
指導教授:曹逢甫曹逢甫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Feng-fu Tsao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:主題串敘事主題控制刪略代詞口語書面語準備
外文關鍵詞:topic chainnarrativetopic-controlled deletionanaphoraspoken languagewritten languageplanning
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主題串在中文裡是一種很常見的文法結構。按照曹逢甫(1979)的分析,主題可以將其語意範圍擴展至數個句子以形成一個主題串,而句子之間可以不必有連接詞作為聯繫。其次,在一個主題串裡,位於句首的大主題必須是有定的,它控制著後面語段的同指名詞組刪略。本研究採用曹的分析模式,旨在探討主題串的長度及出現頻率在中文口述與書面敘事這兩個語體中是否會展現差異。我們讓受試者看圖說/寫故事,一共收集到口述敘事以及書寫敘事各二十篇。藉由本研究,我們期望能夠答覆以下幾個問題。第一、主題串在哪一種語體中比較長?口語或書面語?第二、主題控制刪略在哪一種語體中出現的頻率比較高?第三、可以受到刪略卻沒有刪略的主題,會以何種樣貌出現?這種情形傾向於口語或書面語?為什麼?
量化分析的結果顯示,主題控制刪略以及長度較長的主題串在書面敘事裡出現的比例較高。另外,我們還發現,若讓受試者先寫後說,則口述敘事可能會受到書面敘事的影響而提高主題控制刪略出現的比例。另一方面,質化分析的結果顯示,可以受到刪略卻沒有刪略的主題,會以名詞或代名詞代替,口語中較常有這種情形。從以上的研究結果來看,口語與書面語對於主題串的運用,的確存有落差,而我們認為這跟心理準備有密切的關係。在未經準備的(即席)談話裡,談話者面臨時間壓力,所以較不容易使用較長的主題串,因為這種結構的產生需要一定時間的準備及思考。最後,我們提出原因解釋為何口語傾向使用名詞或代名詞來取代零代詞(主題控制刪略)。這是因為談話者記憶力有限,所以必須隨時確認談話主題在言談當中的地位。

Topic chain (TC) is a prevalent grammatical device that can be readily identified in Chinese discourse. Tsao (1979) regards it as a semantic domain under which a topic extends over more than one sentence with or without connectors. According to his model, a topic chain is led by a definite, sentence-initial chain topic, which controls all the subsequent coreferential deletions within the chain. Following Tsao’s TC framework, this study is primarily intended to investigate whether the use of TC is likely to display any difference between spoken and written narrative in terms of the domain and frequency of occurrences of topic-controlled deletions (TCD). The narrative data for my analysis were elicited through the picture-based technique on 20 native subjects producing 40 stories with 20 spoken and 20 written. Based on these data, through this study I hope to answer the following questions. First, is written TC longer than spoken TC? Second, in which modality, spoken or written, does TCD occur more frequently? Third, if a topic could undergo coreferential deletion but turns out not to, what alternative devices would instead appear? Which modality employs these devices more? And why?
The quantitative investigation of TCD in the two modalities reveals that written narrative exhibits a higher percentage of occurrences of TCD and long chains than spoken narrative. Moreover, written-prior narrative may potentially raise the percentage of TCD occurrences for spoken narrative carried out later. On the other hand, the qualitative examination of anaphora indicates that in some cases where written narrative makes use of zero anaphora (coreferentially deleted topic), spoken narrative instead favors the use of pronominalization or NP repetition. All these findings tend to demonstrate a gap between spoken and written narrative with respect to the production of TCD, and I argue that such a gap is related to mental planning. In unplanned discourse, since speakers undergo processing pressure caused by speech spontaneity, they are often unable to employ devices such as long-chain zero anaphora that requires forethought and organizational preparation (Ochs, 1979; Lakoff, 1982). Furthermore, speakers’ preference of pronoun and NP suggests that due to memory limitations, they need, more often than not, to confirm the status of the current topic in discourse.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1Preliminaries 1
1.2Research Questions 4
1.3Data and Methodology 6
1.4Organization of the Study 7
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1Cohesion and Syntactic Complexity 8
2.2Fragmentation/Integration and Involvement/Detachment 11
2.3Spoken and Written Narrative in Different Cultures 15
2.4Experimental Studies in Spoken and Written Discourse 17
2.5Summary 19
CHAPTER 3: TOPIC CHAIN 22
3.1Topic in Chinese and its Chaining Function 22
3.1.1Topic vs. Subject 22
3.1.2Characterizing Topic Chain 24
3.2Structure of Topic Chain in Spoken and Written Narrative 28
3.2.1Unmarked Topic Chain (UMTC) 28
3.2.1.1Unpunctuated UMTC 28
3.2.1.2Punctuated UMTC29
3.2.1.3Quantitative Analysis of UMTC 30
3.2.2Marked Topic Chain (MTC) 31
3.2.3Presentative Topic Chain (PrTC) 36
3.2.4Pivotal Topic Chain (PiTC) 39
3.3Summary 43
CHAPTER 4:TOPIC-CONTROLLED DELETIONS:
QANTITATIVE ANALYSIS 45
4.1Domain and Distribution of TC in Spoken and Written Narrative 45
4.2Comparison of Occurring Frequency of TCD
between Spoken and Written Narrative 48
4.3Influence of Modality Delivery Sequence on TCD 51
4.4Summary 54
CHAPTER 5: ANAPHORA AND REFERENCE 55
5.1Anaphora in Presentative Topic Chain 55
5.2Anaphora in Subordinate Clauses 63
5.3Demonstrative Reference 67
5.4Summary 73
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION 75
6.1Summary of Findings in the Present Study 75
6.2Applications to Language Teaching and Translation 78
6.3Suggestions for Further Research 79
REFERENCES 81
APPENDIX 87

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