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研究生:陳姿瑾
研究生(外文):Tzu-chin Chen
論文名稱:中文建議語在團體諮商之運用
論文名稱(外文):Suggestion in Chinese: Its Use in Group Counseilng
指導教授:曹逢甫曹逢甫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Feng-fu Tsao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:建議勸告語言行為表意行為諮商建議建議策略
外文關鍵詞:suggestionsadvicespeech actillocutionary actcounseling suggestionssuggestion strategies
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本文主要藉由大學生及研究生的諮商練習課程之錄音語料,來觀察中文建議語在團體諮商之運用。建議施與受的應對通常具有固定的句子成分、會話及互動模式。此外,社會因素如親密度、性別、權威等可以影響說話者的語言表現,如句式及策略的選擇。
本文大體上研究四個面向:建議語之組成分析、建議語之策略研究、諮商體式和建議語流程、及社會因素對說話者的建議語句式及策略選擇上的影響。其中建議語受社會因素影響的資料分析發現如下:
1.整體而言,諮商的建議語的運用多半是間接的且客氣的,說話者使用疑問句式(interrogatives)和詢問預備狀況策略(Preparatory Condition Inquiry Strategy)居多,深受諮商及禮貌原則影響。
2.在公眾情境及諮商原則的影響下,本研究裡說話者彼此之間的親密度對建議的句式及策略的選擇上並無顯著的差異。
3.女性在發言、建議及提出問題的頻率上皆比男性高,語言多表現出團結及支持,多用肯定與鼓勵字眼。男女在句式選擇上並無顯著差異,但在策略方面,男生喜用提供選擇策略(Option Offering Strategy)而女生則是詢問預備狀況策略(Preparatory Condition Inquiry Strategy)居多,看出女性的表現較為間接且客氣。
4.此課程的教師在建議語的句式及策略上的運用上多傾向間接且客氣。與學生相較之下,使用疑問句式及詢問預備狀況策略來得更多,顯示在諮商過程中,此教師並未表現老師身份的地位權威,而是表現諮商員身份的專業權威。
由本研究結果發現,與一般建議語不同的是:諮商的建議語多為間接與客氣,顯示出建議語在諮商情境中深受一般諮商原則影響。

This study is an attempt to explore the use of group counseling suggestions in Chinese, through audio-taped data gathered from the discourse of the undergraduates’ and graduates’ counseling practices in class. Suggestion exchanges between suggestion giving and receiving usually carry some precoded sentential units, conversational and interactional routines. Besides, social factors, such as intimacy, gender, authority, etc., can influence the speaker’s linguistic expressions, including the choices of linguistic forms and strategies
There are general aspects of suggestions we examine in this study: the analysis of the composition of a suggestion speech act, the study of suggestion strategies, the format of counseling and the sequence of a suggestion speech act, and the influence of social factors on the speaker’s choice of linguistic forms and strategies. The findings of the influence of social factors on suggestions from data analysis are as follows:
1.In general, the expressions of counseling suggestions are more indirect and polite. Under the influence of counseling principles, the most frequently used expressions are Interrogatives and the most frequently adopted strategy is Preparatory Condition Inquiry.
2.Under the influence of the public setting and counseling principles, the intimacy of Speakers does not have any influence on the choices of linguistic forms and strategies.
3.The frequency of female’s speaking, suggestion giving, and question raising are higher than that of male’s. Females tend to express a sense of solidarity and support, using more positive and encouraging words. No obvious distinction of the linguistic forms between males and female exists. With regard to the strategies, Males like to use Option Offering Strategy, while females love to use Preparatory Condition Inquiry Strategy. The data shows that female expressions are in general more indirect and polite.
4.The teacher of the counseling course uses a lot of indirect and polite expressions. Compared with the students, she uses more interrogatives and adopts more Preparatory Condition Inquiry Strategy. It shows that she chose to assume the role of a counselor who possesses only knowledge authority rather than that of a teacher who possesses in addition power authority.
From the findings of the study, counseling suggestions different from everyday suggestions are more indirect and polite. It shows that suggestions are greatly influenced by counseling principles.

Table of Contents
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Motivation
1.2 Data Collection
1.3 Method
1.4 Organization of the Thesis
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Speech Acts
2.2 Politeness
2.3 Politeness in Chinese
2.4 Relevant Studies
Chapter Three Framework
3.1 Definition of a Suggestion
3.1.1 Suggestions and Advice
3.1.2 Suggestions and Requests
3.2 Description of a Suggestion Event
3.2.1 Head Act
3.2.2 Adjuncts
3.2.2.1 Internal Modifications
3.2.2.1.1 Downgraders
3.2.2.1.2 Upgraders
3.2.2.2 External Modifications
3.2.2.2.1 Mitigating Modifications
3.2.2.2.2 Aggravating Modifications
3.2.3 Pre-suggestions
3.3 Summary
Chapter Four Suggestion Strategies
4.1 Suggestion Strategies
4.1.1 Mood Derivable
4.1.2 Explicit Performatives
4.1.3 Locution Derivable
4.1.4 Option Offering
4.1.5 Experience Sharing
4.1.6 Scope Stating
4.1.7 Preparatory Condition Inquiry
4.2 Politeness in Strategies
4.2.1Bald-on-record
4.2.2 Positive Polite On-record
4.2.3 Negative Polite On-record
Chapter Five Data Analysis
5.1 Organization of the Group Counseling
5.1.1 Format
5.1.1.1 Opening
5.1.1.2 Discussion
5.1.1.3 Closing
5.1.2 Sequence
5.2 Social Factors
5.2.1 Setting (Group)
5.2.2 Intimacy
5.2.3 Gender
5.2.4 Authority
Chapter Six Conclusion
6.1 Summary of Major Findings
6.2 Contribution of the Study
6.3 Suggestions for Further Research
Appendix: Transcription Notations
References

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