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研究生(外文):Tzu-chin Chen
論文名稱(外文):Suggestion in Chinese: Its Use in Group Counseilng
指導教授(外文):Feng-fu Tsao
外文關鍵詞:suggestionsadvicespeech actillocutionary actcounseling suggestionssuggestion strategies
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1.整體而言,諮商的建議語的運用多半是間接的且客氣的,說話者使用疑問句式(interrogatives)和詢問預備狀況策略(Preparatory Condition Inquiry Strategy)居多,深受諮商及禮貌原則影響。
3.女性在發言、建議及提出問題的頻率上皆比男性高,語言多表現出團結及支持,多用肯定與鼓勵字眼。男女在句式選擇上並無顯著差異,但在策略方面,男生喜用提供選擇策略(Option Offering Strategy)而女生則是詢問預備狀況策略(Preparatory Condition Inquiry Strategy)居多,看出女性的表現較為間接且客氣。

This study is an attempt to explore the use of group counseling suggestions in Chinese, through audio-taped data gathered from the discourse of the undergraduates’ and graduates’ counseling practices in class. Suggestion exchanges between suggestion giving and receiving usually carry some precoded sentential units, conversational and interactional routines. Besides, social factors, such as intimacy, gender, authority, etc., can influence the speaker’s linguistic expressions, including the choices of linguistic forms and strategies
There are general aspects of suggestions we examine in this study: the analysis of the composition of a suggestion speech act, the study of suggestion strategies, the format of counseling and the sequence of a suggestion speech act, and the influence of social factors on the speaker’s choice of linguistic forms and strategies. The findings of the influence of social factors on suggestions from data analysis are as follows:
1.In general, the expressions of counseling suggestions are more indirect and polite. Under the influence of counseling principles, the most frequently used expressions are Interrogatives and the most frequently adopted strategy is Preparatory Condition Inquiry.
2.Under the influence of the public setting and counseling principles, the intimacy of Speakers does not have any influence on the choices of linguistic forms and strategies.
3.The frequency of female’s speaking, suggestion giving, and question raising are higher than that of male’s. Females tend to express a sense of solidarity and support, using more positive and encouraging words. No obvious distinction of the linguistic forms between males and female exists. With regard to the strategies, Males like to use Option Offering Strategy, while females love to use Preparatory Condition Inquiry Strategy. The data shows that female expressions are in general more indirect and polite.
4.The teacher of the counseling course uses a lot of indirect and polite expressions. Compared with the students, she uses more interrogatives and adopts more Preparatory Condition Inquiry Strategy. It shows that she chose to assume the role of a counselor who possesses only knowledge authority rather than that of a teacher who possesses in addition power authority.
From the findings of the study, counseling suggestions different from everyday suggestions are more indirect and polite. It shows that suggestions are greatly influenced by counseling principles.

Table of Contents
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Motivation
1.2 Data Collection
1.3 Method
1.4 Organization of the Thesis
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Speech Acts
2.2 Politeness
2.3 Politeness in Chinese
2.4 Relevant Studies
Chapter Three Framework
3.1 Definition of a Suggestion
3.1.1 Suggestions and Advice
3.1.2 Suggestions and Requests
3.2 Description of a Suggestion Event
3.2.1 Head Act
3.2.2 Adjuncts Internal Modifications Downgraders Upgraders External Modifications Mitigating Modifications Aggravating Modifications
3.2.3 Pre-suggestions
3.3 Summary
Chapter Four Suggestion Strategies
4.1 Suggestion Strategies
4.1.1 Mood Derivable
4.1.2 Explicit Performatives
4.1.3 Locution Derivable
4.1.4 Option Offering
4.1.5 Experience Sharing
4.1.6 Scope Stating
4.1.7 Preparatory Condition Inquiry
4.2 Politeness in Strategies
4.2.2 Positive Polite On-record
4.2.3 Negative Polite On-record
Chapter Five Data Analysis
5.1 Organization of the Group Counseling
5.1.1 Format Opening Discussion Closing
5.1.2 Sequence
5.2 Social Factors
5.2.1 Setting (Group)
5.2.2 Intimacy
5.2.3 Gender
5.2.4 Authority
Chapter Six Conclusion
6.1 Summary of Major Findings
6.2 Contribution of the Study
6.3 Suggestions for Further Research
Appendix: Transcription Notations

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