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研究生:蔣星星
研究生(外文):Stella S.S.Chiang
論文名稱:積體電路鋁導線之電子遷移研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of Electromigration of Sputtered Ti, TiN and Al-Alloy in IC Metallization
指導教授:喻冀平黃嘉宏黃嘉宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ge-Ping YuJia-Hong Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:工程與系統科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:核子工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:52
中文關鍵詞:電子遷移失效分析氮化鈦鋁-銅合金
外文關鍵詞:ElectromigrationFailure AnalysisTiNAl-Cu alloy
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本論文研究的重點在於 : (1) 不同種類的氧化膜對鈦薄膜優選方向的影響 , 以及鈦 , 氧化鈦與鋁-銅合金 ( 0.5% 銅 ) 薄膜彼此間織構方向的關連性 (2) 鋁-銅合金的沉積製程參數改變時 , 其電子遷移的優劣狀況 (3) 比較高溫製程 ( hot Al ) 沉積的鋁-銅合金導線與低溫製程 ( cold Al ) 沉積的鋁-銅合金導線在電子遷移阻抗性強弱的比較 , 以及失效測試鍵的失效機制分析 。 鈦 , 氧化鈦與鋁-銅合金薄膜是使用多個反應腔所組成的濺鍍機台。
鈦薄膜沉積在氧化膜上的基底溫度分別為 室溫, 100C 及 200C , 從 x 光繞射 ( XRD )的結果顯示當沉積的基底溫度升高 , 鈦的結晶性可以被改善 . 而氧化鈦的結晶性則是與鈦有相依存的正向關連性 。 由於鋁-銅薄膜的沉積厚度較厚 , 故鋁的優選方向及分佈並不受到底層鈦或氧化鈦織構的影響 。
以反射率 ( reflectance ) , 片阻值( sheet resistance ) 與內應力 ( stress ) 作為製程參數改變時 , 描述薄膜特性的指標 。 Ar 壓力 ( 15 ~ 50 sccm ) 的改變對薄膜特性並無明顯的影響 . 電子遷移的阻抗性與鋁原子大小有相當大的關連性 。高功率的鍍膜方式使得產生的晶粒較小且表面的反射率較高 , 而低功率會使得所產生的晶粒較大及表面的反射率較低 . 而具有較大的原子晶粒因其鋁原子擴散路徑較少, 使得對電子遷移的阻抗增加 。 真空腔內的起始壓力愈高 , 所沉積薄膜的反射率愈小 , 揭露了薄膜內雜質增加 , 對電子遷移的阻抗也隨之降低 。
高溫製程所沉積的鋁-銅薄膜( hot Al ) , 其沉積溫度( 450C ) 較低溫製程( 300C )的鋁-銅薄膜高 。 實驗結果顯示高溫製程在電子遷移測試時有早期故障的情況 。從分析早期故障的測試樣品中 , 可以得知發生電路短路的三個階段 : (1) 微孔洞的成核 — 在氧化鈦與鋁的界面有熱凹現象的產生 , 而提供了一個微孔洞成核中心。鋁的晶界表面張歷經計算為1.438 J/m2 。 (2) 微孔洞的成長 - 可分為縱向或橫向二方向 , 橫向的擴張 容易形成一個自由表面的通道 , 加速鋁原子的移動。 (3) 電路短路 - 空洞 的形成會使得 導線的阻值增高而產生焦耳熱 , 進而加速鋁原子的擴散速率。藉由自催化的反應 ( 導線截面積的減少 , 使得阻值增加 , 而局部溫度的升高 , 又造成焦耳熱 , 增加擴散速率 ) , 最後造成 金屬導線的熔化。

This research focused on (1) the effect of substrate (oxide) on the preferred orientation of Ti , and the relationship of orientation among Ti , TiN and Al films, (2) the effect of processing parameter on the Al film properties and electromigration performance, (3) the comparison of electromigration performance between hot Al and cold Al processing ,and the analysis of failure mechanism . The Ti, TiN and Al films are deposited using multi chamber dc magnetron sputtering system .
Ti film was deposited on SiO2 substrate at room temperature, 100℃and 200 ℃. The results of x-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the crystallization of Ti improved with increasing substrate temperature. The preferred orientation of TiN is also correlated to the crystallization of Ti. Since the Al film deposited on the TiN was much thicker than TiN film , the preferred orientation of Al film was not significantly affected by the underlayer TiN film .
When “reflectance,” “sheet resistance” and “stress” were identified as the indeices of film properties parameters , the change of Ar pressure (from 15 sccm to 50 sccm) did not distinctly influence the film properties .
The electromigration performance can be correlated to the grain size of Al film . High power results in smaller grain size with higher reflectance ; low power results in larger grain size and lower reflectance . Al film with large grain size had fewer diffusion paths and therefore the electromigration performance increased . The reflectance was found to be decreased with increasing base pressure, implying the increase of impurity in film and thus results in lower performance of EM .
The temperature of hot Al process during Al deposition is higher (450℃) than that of cold Al (300 ℃) process . Experiment results showed that Al wired deposited by hot Al process tended to fail earlier in the EM test . It was found that there are three steps for the occurrence of open circuit: (1) microvoid nucleation: the grooving occurred at the interface between Al and TiN providing a microvoid nucleation center. The surface tension of the Al grain boundary is calculated to be 1.438 J/m2. (2) microvoid growth: the direction of microvoid growth can be vertical or horizontal. Horizontal growth tended to form free surface, which can accelerate the migration of Al atoms. (3) open circuit: the formation of voids rapidly increased the resistance and induced joule heating and thereby accelerating diffusion rate . The final failure of the metal line was caused by a auto catalytic process consisting of increasing resistivity due to reducing cross section of the wire , joule heating , diffusion rate increasing due to increasing locally temperature , and final melting of metal line .

Chapter 1 Introduction …………………………………………… 1
Chapter 2 Physical Models ……………………………………… 3
2.1 Structure of Metal …………………………………… 3
2.2 Potential Well and Self Diffusion ……………… 4
2.3 Electromigration ……………………………………… 5
2.4 Diffusional Flux and The Driving Force of
Electromigration ……………………………………… 6
2.5 Median Time to Failure ……………………………… 7
2.6 Critical Length for Electromigration …………… 9
2.7 Mechanism of Damage Formation
2.7.1 Failure Type ………………………………… 9
2.7.2 Flux Divergence ……………………………… 9
2.8 The Sources of Flux Divergence of Metal Thin Films
…………………………………………………………… 10
2.9 Factors to affect the Lifetime of Electromigration
…………………………………………………………… 11
Chapter 3 Experiment
3.1 Blanket Wafers ( Orientation Relationship ) … 12
3.2 Pattern Wafers ( Electromigration performance )
…………………………………………………………… 15
Chapter 4 Results and Discussions
4.1 X-Ray Diffraction Analysis ……………………… 19
4.2 Properties of Al-alloy Films …………………… 29
4.3 Hot Al Versus Cold Al
4.3.1 Grain size Distribution ………………… 34
4.3.2 Lifetime Distribution ………………… 34
4.3.3 Analysis of Failure Samples ………… 34
4.3.4 Early Failure in The Hot Al Processes 35
Chapter 5 Summary …………………………………………… 49
Chapter 6 References …………………………………… 50

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13. W.L.Pan , G.P.Yu and J.H.Huang , “ Mechanical Properties of Ion-Plated TiN Films on AISI D2 Steel “ Surf. Coat. Tech., Vol.110 , p111 ~ 119 ( 1998 )
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