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研究生:黃志雄
研究生(外文):Chich-shing Huang
論文名稱:自然環境教學對重度智能障礙兒童溝通能力的影響及其相關研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Milieu Teaching on Communication Abilities of Children with Severe Mental Retardation
指導教授:莊妙芬莊妙芬引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺南大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:208
中文關鍵詞:重度智能障礙溝通能力異常行為溝通訓練自然環境教學
外文關鍵詞:communication abilitiesmilieu teachingcommunication trainingexceptional behaviorsevere mental retardation
相關次數:
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摘要
本研究之目的在探討自然環境教學對重度智能障礙兒童溝通能力的影響。研究方法採用單一受試實驗設計中跨受試多探試設計,自變項為自然環境教學,依變項為重度智能障礙兒童各項溝通行為的次數。

本研究以三名7 到9 歲的重度智能障礙兒童為研究對象,三名受試分別接受基線期、介入期和維持期之資料蒐集,資料的蒐集以攝影機拍攝,並分別記錄各項溝通行為在每個行為樣本中出現的次數。蒐集到的資料以目視分析和時間序列C 統計加以分析,瞭解自然環境教學對三名受試自發性溝通行為、類化溝通行為和異常溝通行為的影響。同時,並輔以其他觀察資料分析,以及家長和教師訪談資料的社會效度分析。
本研究之結果如下:
一、自然環境教學顯著增進重度智能障礙兒童自發性溝通行為的次數。
二、自然環境教學的效果能夠維持重度智能障礙兒童自發
性溝通行為的次數。
三、自然環境教學顯著增進重度智能障礙兒童類化溝通行
為的次數。
四、自然環境教學的效果能夠維持重度智能障礙兒童類化
溝通行為的次數。
五、自然環境教學顯著降低重度智能障礙兒童異常溝通行為的次數。
六、自然環境教學的效果能夠維持重度智能障礙兒童異常溝通行為的次數。
七、自然環境教學對重度智能障礙兒童的其他影響有,受試甲:提高挫折容忍度、增加主動溝通的意願、增加溝通行為的適當性、增加溝通互動的等待時間。受試乙:增加仿說能力、提高挫折容忍度、增加認知學習的意願。受試丙:增加溝通互動等待的時間、減少不適當的溝通方式。
八、家長和教師認為自然環境教學能增進重度智能障礙兒童的溝通能力,並認為增進溝通能力的因素包括:在自然的環境中學習、情境化和生活化的教學方式、有系統的教學策略、有效運用增強系統和溝通圖卡的使用。
The effects of milieu teaching on the communication abilities of children with severe mental retardation were evaluated in this study. The single-subject, multiple probe across subjects approach was adopted, with milieu teaching as the independent variable and the numbers of various communication behaviors as dependent variables. The study subjects were three children with severe mental retardation ages between 7 and 9. Behavioral data were collected during baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases. Visual analysis and time series C statistics were used to evaluate the effects of milieu teaching on the subjects in terms of spontaneous, generalization, and exceptional communication behaviors. The effects of other observational data, as well as the social validity of the interview data were also analyzed.

iii

The major findings of this study are:

1 . The number of spontaneous and generalization behaviors of the tested subjects increased significantly, while the number of exceptional communication behaviors decreased significantly with milieu teaching.

The numbers of various communication behaviors was maintained with milieu teaching.

Milieu teaching also showed promising signs on improving other communication behaviors. Improvements on frustration endurance, and the willingness of active communications, and the appropriateness of communication behaviors, as well as the waiting time during interaction were observed on one of the subjects. On another subject, improved language imitation, frustration endurance, and the willingness of learning relative cognition were observed. On the third subject, the benefit of milieu teaching was evident by observing the elongated latency during interaction and decreased maladaptive communication behaviors.

Parents and teachers confirmed that milieu teaching could improve the communication ability of the children with severe mental retardation. Keys to the success of communication improvement include the creation of a natural learning environment, the use of contextual and living teaching, systematic teaching strategies, and the effective uses of reinforcement systems and communication books.
目次
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
目次 vii
表次 x
圖次 xi

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題 5
第三節 名詞解釋 6

第二章 文獻探討 11
第一節 智能障礙兒童溝通能力的發展 11
第二節 重度智能障礙兒童的溝通問題 23
第三節 重度智能障礙兒童的溝通訓練 31
第四節 自然環境教學的應用 39

第三章 研究方法 59
第一節 研究架構 59
第二節 研究對象 61
第三節 研究設計 68
第四節 研究步驟 75
第五節 研究工具 79
第六節 資料處理 82

第四章 結果與討論 93
第一節 自然環境教學對受試自發性溝通行為之影響 94
第二節 自然環境教學對受拭略こ噫q行為之影響 108
第三節 自然環境教學對受試異常溝通行為之影響 121
第四節 其他觀察資料分析 136
第五節 社會效度分析 140

第五章 結論與建議 147
第一節 結論 147
第二節 研究限制 151
第三節 建議 152

參考文獻 157
中文部份 157
英文部份 160

附錄 189
附錄一 轉介說明 189
附錄二 個案轉介表 190
附錄三 溝通能力檢核表 191
附錄四 符號擴大系統之擴大溝通評量表 192
附錄五 生態分析評量表 196
附錄六 教室觀察紀錄表 197
附錄七 家長同意書 198
附錄八 各項溝通行為定義及說明 199
附錄九 溝通行為觀察紀錄表 199
附錄十 焦點訪談大綱 202
附錄十一 受試甲之溝通圖卡和輔具 203
附錄十二 受試乙之溝通圖卡和輔具 205
附錄十三 受試炳之溝通圖卡和輔具 207

表次
表2-1 兒童語言能力與認知發展 14-16
表2-2 應用自然環境教學相關研究一覽表 55-57
表3-1 研究對象基本資料表 63
表3-2 受試甲溝通能力表 64
表3-3 受試乙溝通能力表 65
表3-4 受試丙溝通能力表 66
表3-5 研究對象之溝通輔具及內容一覽表 67
表3-6 受試甲之觀察者間一致性信度 84
表3-7 受試乙之觀察者間一致性信度 84
表3-8 受試丙之觀察者間一致性信度 85
表3-9 觀察者間一致性信度一覽表 85
表4-1 自發性溝通行為階段內變化分析摘要表 99
表4-2 自發性溝通行為階段間變化分析摘要表 100
表4-3 自發性溝通行為C統計摘要表 101
表4-4 類化溝通行為階段內變化分析摘要表 110
表4-5 類化溝通行為階段間變化分析摘要表 111
表4-6 類化溝通行為C統計摘要表 112
表4-7 異常溝通行為階段內變化分析摘要表 129
表4-8 異常溝通行為階段間變化分析摘要表 130
表4-9 異常溝通行為C統計摘要表 131

圖次
圖2-1 自然環境教學構成要素圖 42
圖2-2 示範策略教學步驟 46
圖2-3 提示--示範策略教學步驟 47
圖2-4 時間延宕策略教學步驟 50
圖2-5 隨機教學策略教學步驟 51
圖3-1 研究架構流程圖 60
圖4-1 自發性溝通行為次數曲線圖 98
圖4-2 類化溝通行為次數曲線圖 109
圖4-3 異常溝通行為次數曲線圖 128
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