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研究生:黃國泰
研究生(外文):Huang Kuo Tai
論文名稱:縮墨鑄鐵製程穩定性之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Compacted Graphite Cast Iron Process Stability
指導教授:邱弘興邱弘興引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:工業教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:縮墨鑄鐵穩定性
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摘 要
本研究針對三種球化劑(KC合金、CG合金、稀土元素)在生產縮狀石墨鑄鐵時,所需添加量及在儘可能同一製程參數下了解金相組織和機械性質的穩定性,並探討以兩種不同退火處理的冷卻速度下所得基地組織之穩定性等情形作一研究。
實驗結果指出以CG合金球化劑生產縮墨鑄鐵所需添加含量為0.8%,KC合金球化劑生產縮墨鑄鐵所需添加含量為0.3%,稀土元素生產縮墨鑄鐵所需添加含量為0.45%,以上三種球化劑皆需添加0.2%的接種劑。經統計KC合金之縮墨率變異數為44.98標準差為6.71其值最小,且八個爐次縮墨率平均值為83.13%,所以添加KC合金所生產之縮墨鑄鐵縮墨率最高,製程最穩定。另外基地組織則以CG合金變異數17.41標準差4.17,值最小,穩定性最高。
由實驗結果得知以CG合金所生產之縮墨鑄鐵所獲得的機械性質普遍都較佳,穩定性也較高。縮墨鑄鐵在進行退火處理時,最後階段不管是爐冷至260℃再移至空冷或者直接進行空冷都不影響獲得完全肥粒鐵組織。

ABSTRACT
This paper is mainly focusing on the study of the amount of the three kinds of spheroidizing, KC alloys、CG alloys、Rare earths that is needed to produce the compacted graphite cast iron, and on the study of the stability in the process of producing optical microscope observation and mechanical property under as identical condition as possible. Besides, this paper will do the comparison between the stability of the two base structures under two different speed of annealing.
The results shows that the amount needed to produce the compacted graphite cast iron is 0.8% with CG alloy-spheroidizing, 0.3% with KC alloy-spheroidizing, 0.8% with Rare earths; and what’s more, the above three kinds of spheroidizing have to add 0.2% dose of inoculation. According to the gauging, the coefficient of variance of the compacted rate of graphite is 44.98, and the standard deviation of it is 6.71, which is the smallest. In addition, the average figure of the eight-time experiment is 88.13% so to add KC alloys can make the process of producing the compacted graphite cast iron most stable.
From the results of the experiment, CG alloys can produce better mechanical quality of the compacted graphite cast iron, and have more stable process of producing it. When the compacted graphite cast iron is under the process of the annealing, neither the temperature quenching down to 260°C in the stove before quenching in the air nor quenching the temperature directly in the air will have influence on getting the complete ferrite structure.

總目錄
中文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅰ
英文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅱ
總目錄----------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅲ
表目錄----------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅳ
圖目錄----------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅴ
第一章
前言----------------------------------------------------------------------1
1-1研究動機--------------------------------------------------------------1
1-2研究目的--------------------------------------------------------------2
第二章 文獻探討--------------------------------------------------------------3
2-1縮墨鑄鐵的發展-----------------------------------------------------3
2-2縮墨鑄鐵的組織-----------------------------------------------------4
2-3縮墨鑄鐵的機械性質與應用--------------------------------------5
2-4縮墨鑄鐵之製造方法-----------------------------------------------7
2-5縮墨鑄鐵在生產品質上的控制-----------------------------------8
2-6接種處理--------------------------------------------------------------10
2-7鑄件退火處理--------------------------------------------------------11
第三章 實驗方法及步驟-------------------------------------------------------14
3-1實驗配置--------------------------------------------------------------14
3-2實驗材料與模型-----------------------------------------------------14
3-3實驗儀器與設備-----------------------------------------------------15
3-4縮墨鑄鐵的熔解過程-----------------------------------------------16
3-5接種及縮墨化處理--------------------------------------------------17
3-6試片製作--------------------------------------------------------------17
3-7鑄件退火處理--------------------------------------------------------18
3-8顯微組織之觀察-----------------------------------------------------18
3-9縮墨化率計算方法--------------------------------------------------19
3-10機械性質試驗 -----------------------------------------------------20
3-11變異數分析 --------------------------------------------------------22
第四章 實驗結果與討論-------------------------------------------------------24
4-1縮墨鑄鐵製程所需之添加量 -------------------------------------24
4-2縮墨鑄鐵的機械性質 ----------------------------------------------26
4-3鑄態金相顯微組織穩定性之分析 -------------------------------27
4-4鑄態基地組織穩定性分析 ----------------------------------------28
4-5鑄態縮墨鑄鐵的硬度值穩定性分析 ----------------------------29
4-6鑄態縮墨鑄鐵的抗拉強度和伸長率穩定性分析 -------------30
4-7鑄態縮墨鑄鐵的衝擊值穩定性分析 ----------------------------31
4-8三種球化劑所生產之縮墨鑄鐵機械性質的穩定性分析比較---------------------------------------------------------------------------32
4-9縮墨鑄鐵退火處理之顯微組織 -------------------------------- 33
第五章 結論 ------------------------------------------------------------------34
參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------------------36
附錄一---------------------------------------------------------------------------79
表目錄
表3-1 各種料之化學成份----------------------------------------------------41
表3-2 球化劑之化學成份----------------------------------------------------41
表3-3 接種劑之化學成份----------------------------------------------------42
表4-1 CG合金、KC合金、稀土元素三種球化劑生產縮墨鑄鐵製程控 制因素--------------------------------------------------------------------43
表4-2 CG合金、KC合金、稀土元素三種球化劑所生產之縮墨鑄鐵的顯微組織及機械性質--------------------------------------------------44
表4-3 CG合金、KC合金、稀土元素三種球化劑的機械性質之統計值---------------------------------------------------45
表4-4 ANOVA 變異數分析--------------------------------------------------45
表4-5三種球化劑所生產之縮墨鑄鐵的縮墨率統計值-----------46
表4-6三種球化劑所生產之縮墨鑄鐵的基地組織統計值---------46
圖目錄
圖3-1 研究架構圖-----------------------------------------47
圖3-2 Y-Block幾何圖形 ----------------------------------48
圖3-3 三明治澆斗幾何形狀 --------------------------------49
圖3-4 A組退火處理時間控制圖-----------------------------50
圖3-5 B組退火處理時間控制圖-----------------------------50
圖3-6 拉伸試棒尺寸規格-----------------------------------51
圖3-7 衝擊試片尺寸規格-----------------------------------51
圖3-8 衝擊試驗計算方法-----------------------------------52
圖4-1縮墨鑄鐵製程添加CG合金、KC合金、稀土元素不同含量金相組織圖---------------------------------------------53
圖4-2 CG1金相顯微組織圖 (86%CG+14SG;55%F+45%P)----------54
圖4-3 CG2金相顯微組織圖 (85%CG+15SG;55%F+45%P)----------54
圖4-4 CG3金相顯微組織圖 (82%CG+18SG;65%F+35%P) ---------55
圖4-5 CG4金相顯微組織圖 (80%CG+20SG;60%F+40%P)----------55
圖4-6 CG5金相顯微組織圖 (75%CG+25%SG;55%F+45%P) --------56
圖4-7 CG6金相顯微組織圖 (75%CG+25%SG;60%F+40%P) --------56
圖4-8 CG7金相顯微組織圖 (70%CG+30%SG;65%F+35%P)---------57
圖4-9 CG8金相顯微組織圖 (50%CG+50%SG;60%F+40%P) --------57
圖4-10 KC1金相顯微組織圖 (90%CG+10%SG;60%F+40%P) -------58
圖4-11 KC2金相顯微組織圖 (90%CG+10%SG;60%F+40%P)--------58
圖4-12 KC3金相顯微組織圖 (88%CG+12%SG;65%F+35%P)--------59
圖4-13 KC4金相顯微組織圖 (85%CG+15%SG;70%F+30%P)--------59
圖4-14 KC5金相顯微組織圖 (82%CG+18%SG;60%F+40%P)--------60
圖4-15 KC6金相顯微組織圖 (80%CG+20%SG;55%F+45%P)--------60
圖4-16 KC7金相顯微組織圖 (80%CG+20%SG;45%F+55%P)---------61
圖4-17 KC8金相顯微組織圖 (70%CG+30%SG;45%F+55%P)--------61
圖4-18 R1金相顯微組織圖 (90%CG+10%SG;40%F+60%P)---------62
圖4-19 R2金相顯微組織圖 (83%CG+17%SG;40%F+60%P)---------62
圖4-20 R3金相顯微組織圖 (75%CG+25%SG;50%F+50%P)---------63
圖4-21 R4金相顯微組織圖 (75%CG+25%SG;35%F+65%P)---------63
圖4-22 R5金相顯微組織圖 (70%CG+30%SG;35%F+65%P)---------64
圖4-23 R6金相顯微組織圖 (65%CG+35%SG;40%F+60%P)----------64
圖4-24 R7金相顯微組織圖 (50%CG+50%SG;40%F+60%P)----------65
圖4-25 R8金相顯微組織圖 (50%CG+50%SG;30%F+70%P)---------65
圖4-26縮墨鑄鐵製程中所添加三種球化劑之縮墨率比較圖------66
圖4-27三種球化劑所生產之縮墨鑄鐵的縮墨率與基地組織比較圖---------------------------------------------------------66
圖4-28添加CG合金所生產縮墨鑄鐵之勃氏硬度值-------------67
圖4-29添加KC合金所生產縮墨鑄鐵之勃氏硬度值-------------67
圖4-30添加稀土元素合金所生產縮墨鑄鐵之勃氏硬度值--------68
圖4-31三種球化劑所生產之縮墨鑄鐵的基地組織與勃氏硬度比較圖---------------------------------------------------------68
圖4-32添加CG合金所生產縮墨鑄鐵之抗拉強度值-------------69
圖4-33添加CG合金所生產縮墨鑄鐵之伸長率-----------------69
圖4-34添加KC合金所生產縮墨鑄鐵之抗拉強度值-------------70
圖4-35添加KC合金所生產縮墨鑄鐵之伸長率-----------------70
圖4-36添加稀土元素所生產縮墨鑄鐵抗拉強度值--------------71
圖4-37添加稀土元素所生產縮墨鑄鐵之伸長率----------------71
圖4-38添加三種球化劑所生產之縮墨鑄鐵的肥粒鐵與抗拉強度比較圖-------------------------------------------------------72
圖4-39三種球化劑所生產之縮墨鑄鐵的肥粒鐵與伸長率比較圖--72
圖4-40添加CG合金所生產縮墨鑄鐵之衝擊值-----------------73
圖4-41添加KC合金所生產縮墨鑄鐵之衝擊值-----------------73
圖4-42添加稀土元素所生產縮墨鑄鐵之衝擊值----------------74
圖4-43三種球化劑所生產之縮墨鑄鐵的肥粒鐵與衝擊值之比較圖---------------------------------------------------------74
圖4-44 縮墨鑄鐵製程中添加三種球化劑之抗拉強度比較圖------75
圖4-45縮墨鑄鐵製程中添加三種球化劑之勃氏硬度值比較圖----75
圖4-46縮墨鑄鐵製程中添加三種球化劑之衝擊值比較圖--------76
圖4-47縮墨鑄鐵製程中添加三種球化劑之伸長率比較圖--------76
圖4-48 鑄態經5%Nital腐蝕金相組織圖 (a) -----------------77
圖4-49 鑄態經5%Nital腐蝕金相組織圖 (b) -----------------77
圖4-50 經A組熱處理後以5%Nital腐蝕金相組織圖------------78
圖4-51 經B組熱處理後以5%Nital腐蝕金相組織圖 -----------78

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