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研究生:曾鋆生
研究生(外文):Tseng Yun-Sheng
論文名稱:石油工業廢觸媒作為波索蘭材料之可行性研究
論文名稱(外文):The Feasibility Study of Oil Cracking Waste Catalyst as a Pozzolanic Material
指導教授:許貫中許貫中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsu Kung-Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:化學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:廢觸媒波索蘭
外文關鍵詞:waste catalystpozzolan
相關次數:
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隨著經濟和科技的持續發展,愈來愈多的工業廢棄物伴隨而生,台灣地區每年約產生3000噸廢觸媒,為了避免環境遭受廢棄物污染,本研究著重於廢觸媒的再生利用,評估廢觸媒作為混凝土中礦物摻料的可行性。
實驗所採用的廢棄物來自於石油裂解廠的廢觸媒(EPcat、Ecat),主要由Al2O3及SiO2所組成且具有部份非結晶相和波索蘭材料之特性,EPcat 的平均粒徑為1.7μm、比表面積為47 m2/g,而Ecat的平均粒徑為69.8μm、比表面積為114 m2/g。
研究的方法主要分為二部份,第一部份以波索蘭活性試驗(PAI)及藉由DSC測量CH消耗量來評估廢觸媒的波索蘭活性,探討廢觸媒對水泥漿或砂漿的抗壓強度與凝結時間的影響,並利用XRD、DSC、SEM等儀器來分析廢觸媒對波索蘭反應的影響;第二部份針對Ecat進行熱處理,在不同燒結溫度、時間下找出較佳操作條件來提昇其波索蘭活性。
實驗結果顯示EPcat、矽灰比高嶺土、Ecat具有較高的波索蘭活性指數,且其砂漿的抗壓強度均較高;由XRD和DSC圖譜中可明顯看出 EPcat會消耗CH進行波索蘭反應;在SEM照片中可觀察到不同水化產物,如C-S-H膠體、鈣釩石、單硫鋁酸鈣等;水泥漿的凝結時間會因添加EPcat 加速水泥的水化反應而縮短;Ecat在600∼800℃溫燒結1小時並加以研磨後,可顯著增加波索蘭活性,因此廢觸媒應可作為混凝土中的礦物摻料。
As the economy and technology continue to grow, more and more industrial wastes will be generated. In Taiwan, over 3,000 tons of spent FCC (fluidized catalytic cracking) catalysts were produced from petroleum refining companies every year. In order to protect our environment from been polluted by these wastes, this study focuses on the reuse of spent FCC catalysts (EPcat, Ecat). Namely, these catalysts were evaluated as mineral admixtures of concrete.
Both catalysts consist mainly of aluminum oxide and silicon oxide, and show some amorphous nature and pozzolanic properties. EPcat has an average particle size of 1.7μm and a specific surface area of 47m2/g. Ecat has an average particle size of 69.8μm and a specific surface area of 114 m2/g.
Experimentally, the pozzolanic activity of these catalysts was examined by the pozzolanic activity index (PAI) test and the consumption of CH determined by DSC measurements. The effects of catalysts on the compressive strength of mortars and setting time of cement pastes were examined. The pozzolanic activity of these materials was also analyzed by XRD, DSC and SEM. Besides, Ecat was calcined at different temperatures and time so that its pozzolanic activity could be improved.
Test results indicate that EPcat, like silica fume, shows higher pozzolanic activity than metakaolin and Ecat. It can increase the compressive strength of the resulting mortars. From the analysis of XRD and DSC, we have found that EPcat can undergo the pozzolanic reaction by consuming CH. We also have observed various hydrated products such as C-S-H, ettringite and monosulfoaluminate in the EPcat pastes from SEM micrographs. The pastes incorporated with EPcat exhibit shorter setting time because the catalyst can accelerate the cement hydration by undergoing the pozzolanic reaction. The pozzolanic activity of Ecat could be enhanced significantly when this catalyst was heat treated at 600∼800℃ for 1 hr and then ball-milled. Therefore, spent FCC could be potentially used as mineral admixtures of concrete.
目錄
第一章緒論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧3
1-1 研究背景‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧3
1-2 研究目的‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧4
第二章 文獻回顧 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧5
2-1 波索蘭材料‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧5
2-1-1 波索蘭材料之特性‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧6
2-1-2 波索蘭反應‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧6
2-2 廢觸媒‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧7
2-2-1 沸石之特性‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧7
2-2-2 沸石觸媒之應用‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧8
2-2-3 廢觸媒之形成‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧9
2-2-4 現有廢觸媒資源化技術‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧11
2-2-5 天然沸石水泥的作用機理‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧17
2-3 矽灰‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧18
2-3-1 矽灰之生成‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧18
2-3-2 矽灰的作用機理‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧18
2-3-3 矽灰的應用‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧19
2-4 高嶺土‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧21
2-4-1 高嶺土之特性‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧21
2-4-2 高嶺土之用途‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧21
第三章 研究計畫與實驗方法 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 23
3-1 實驗流程‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧23
3-2 實驗方法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧23
3-3 實驗變數‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧26
3-4 實驗材料‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧26
3-5 實驗儀器‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧27
3-6 試驗方法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧28
3-6-1 水泥砂漿抗壓強度試驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧28
3-6-2 水泥砂漿流度試驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧29
3-6-3 礦物摻料波索蘭活性試驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧29
3-6-4 凝結時間試驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧30
3-6-5 粒徑分析試驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧30
3-6-6 比表面積試驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧30
3-6-7 X光繞射分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧31
3-6-8 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡之觀測‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧31
3-6-9 差式熱掃瞄分析試驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧32
3-6-10 Ecat熱處理 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧32
第四章 結果與討論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 33
4-1 材料基本特性分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧33
4-2 礦物摻料的波索蘭活性‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧43
4-3 水泥漿凝結時間‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧44
4-4 水泥砂漿流度‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧46
4-5 水泥砂漿抗壓強度‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧50
4-6 差式熱掃瞄分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧65
4-7 X-光繞射分析 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧74
4-8 SEM分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧78
4-9 Ecat之熱處理‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧80
4-9-1 Ecat抗壓強度‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧80
4-9-2 熱處理對Ecat物性的改變‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧81
4-9-3 決定最佳溫度‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧84
4-9-4 Ecat粒徑的影響‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧86
第五章 結論 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧89
第六章 參考資料 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧91
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