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研究生:黃瑞仁
研究生(外文):Jui-jen Huang
論文名稱:以示範實驗式群測與粒子模型模擬教學探討國中學生對於化學變化的相關概念:以氣體之產生為例
論文名稱(外文):Investigating the Junior High School Students'' Concepts Regarding Chemical Change by Means of Group Demonstration Test and with a Particle-model-simulation Instruction: The Production of Gas as an Example
指導教授:黃寶鈿黃寶鈿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hwang, Bao-tyan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:化學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:化學變化錯誤概念兩段式診斷測驗示範實驗式群測粒子模型模擬教學
外文關鍵詞:chemical changemisconceptiontwo-tier diagnostic testgroup demonstration testparticle-model-simulation instruction
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日常生活中有許多化學變化,但由於日常用語、直觀判斷及不當教學的結果,使學生對於常見的現象變化充滿了許多錯誤的認知。本研究以產生氣體之化學變化為主題,以自行設計之實驗裝置與兩段式診斷測驗問卷為工具,採用示範實驗式群測之方式來探討學生在相關概念上的認知,並利用實驗操作之觀察與粒子模型之模擬教學進行教學活動。希望藉由教學活動的設計來幫助學生理解產生氣體之化學變化的相關概念,並改變其既有之錯誤概念。研究對象為國中一年級至三年級學生,分為實驗組與控制組,共計424人。本研究結果發現:
一、多數學生對於變化之定義不清楚,對物質缺乏組成之概念,且不善於區別變化種類。且多數學生並不清楚化學變化的進行過程,對於微觀粒子的性質缺乏思維能力,所以在許多化學變化的相關概念上有錯誤的認知,不論在微觀與巨觀上,學生主要的錯誤認知為:「無中生有」與「憑空消失」。
二、比較各年級學生在化學變化概念的認知差異方面,發現學生在多數概念上的認知隨年級而有所進步,這顯示在現象變化概念的理解上,需要學生在抽象推理思考能力上的成熟。
三、比較實驗組與控制組在教學前後的概念改變情況,證實本研究採用的實驗操作觀察及粒子模型模擬教學,對於學生在化學變化之進行過程及粒子概念的理解有顯著之教學成效。此外,研究亦發現教學活動對二年級學生有較好的教學效果,代表模型教學對於抽象思考能力發展中的學生而言,有較佳的輔助效果。
In daily life, it is full of chemical change. However, because of ordinary terms, direct judgment, and improper teaching, students have quite a lot of wrong recognition of these changes which are normal phenomenon. Taking the chemical change of producing gas for example, this research was aimed at investigating students’ recognition of correlated concepts by means of group demonstration test using self-designed experimental instrument and the problems of two-tier diagnostic test. Furthermore, by means of the experiment-manipulating observation and particle-model-simulation instruction, students could improve their concepts and changed their misconceptions concerning the chemical changes of gas production. The subjects including all the grades in the junior high school, were divided into the experimental group and the control group. There were totally 424 students. The main findings in this research were:
1.Most students were unclear about the definition of chemical changes, lack building up the concept of material, and were not good at distinguishing the variety of changes. Moreover, most students were unclear about the process of chemical changes, and unable to think the character of microscopic particles. Therefore, they held misconceptions of chemical changes. No matter in the microscopic or macroscopic view, students’ main misconceptions were “making something out of nothing” and “disappear out of the void”.
2.Comparing the difference in the recognition of the concepts of chemical change, students’ recognition of the most concepts was progressed while their grades were higher. It implies that the comprehension of chemical changes needs students’ mature ability of abstract thinking.
3.Comparing the improvement between the experimental and the control group before and after the instruction, it proved that the experiment-manipulating observation and particle-model-simulation instruction were significantly effective in understanding the process and the particle concepts of chemical changes. Moreover, in this research, it showed that there was much effective for the eight grade students. It means that by model instruction it had better effectiveness for helping the students who were developing their ability of abstract thinking.
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的......................................1
第二節 名詞解釋與界定......................................2
第三節 研究限制............................................3
第二章 理論基礎與文獻探討
第一節 皮亞傑認知發展理論..................................5
第二節 粒子概念...........................................11
第三節 產生氣體之化學變化.................................18
第四節 錯誤概念與概念診斷.................................26
第五節 粒子模型模擬教學...................................32
第三章 研究方法與步驟
第一節 研究對象...........................................35
第二節 研究方法與設計.....................................37
第三節 研究工具...........................................41
第四節 進行步驟...........................................59
第四章 研究結果與討論
第一節 國中學生對產生氣體之化學變化的認知情況.............63
第二節 國中學生對產生氣體之化學變化的錯誤概念類型.........71
第三節 各年級學生對產生氣體之化學變化的認知差異...........80
第四節 教學活動對學生概念學習之成效.......................91
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論..............................................101
第二節 建議..............................................105
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中文部分.................................................107
英文部分.................................................109
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