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研究生:余敏源
研究生(外文):MinYuan Yu
論文名稱:製備及鑑定III-V半導體奈米晶體:氮化鎵和磷化鎵
論文名稱(外文):Growth and Characterization of Nanocrystals of III-V Compound Semiconductors: Gallium Nitride and Gallium Phosphide
指導教授:陳家俊陳家俊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Chia-Chun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:化學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:奈米線奈米帶
外文關鍵詞:nanowiresnanobelts
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III-V族半導體奈米晶體的製程與鑑定,在近年來引起廣泛的研究興趣。經由VLS及氧化物催化成長方法,我們已經成功合成氮化鎵、磷化鎵、氮化鎵包覆磷化鎵、磷化鎵包覆氮化鎵奈米線,及磷化鎵奈米帶。
在掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察下,奈米線直徑分布大約是10-100奈米,長度可以達到幾個微米,進一步使用X-ray繞射及高解析度穿透式電子顯微鏡(HR-TEM)鑑定,發現大部分的奈米線都是以單晶的形式存在,氮化鎵為烏采結構,而磷化鎵則是閃鋅結構;至於在放光部分,氮化鎵放光位置在3.38電子伏特,磷化鎵則是在2.33電子伏特。在場發射的研究中,氮化鎵奈米線由於有一低的啟動電壓,被認為有很大的應用潛力在場發射元件方面。
我們也發展一個新的方法,去合成氮化鎵包覆磷化鎵及磷化鎵包覆氮化鎵奈米線,HR-TEM以及拉曼光譜提供了鑑定這兩種奈米晶體結構的重要證據,在HR-TEM下可以明顯的觀察到氮化鎵及磷化鎵的界面,拉曼光譜則顯示了氮化鎵及磷化鎵以外的訊號。
磷化鎵奈米帶狀晶體的發現,是在VLS機制成長磷化鎵線時,在顯微鏡底下被觀察到。典型的奈米帶寬度為40-900奈米,寬度與厚度比為10到20,長度則是微米等級大小。奈米帶狀結構是形狀異於奈米線及奈米薄膜的特殊結構,其物理特性及應用方面,未來應有無限的潛力值得進一步的研究。

Growth and characterization of nanocrystals of III-V compound semiconductors have attracted much interest in recent years. Through vapor-liquid-solid and oxide-assisted growth, we have successfully fabricated gallium nitride (GaN), gallium phosphide (GaP), GaN/GaP, GaP/GaN nanowires and GaP nanobelts.
Typical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show GaN and GaP nanowires grown on silcon substrates with diameter of 10-100 nm and up to several micrometers in length. X-ray diffration and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) have been applied to identify the crystal structures of the GaN and GaP nanowires. The results revealed that most of them are single crystalline wurtzite phase of GaN nanowires and zinc-blende phase of GaP nanowires. Photoluminescence spectra showed band-edge emission of wurtzite GaN nanowires at 3.38 eV and zinc-blende GaP nanowires at 2.33 eV. In field emission studies, GaN nanowires with a low turn-on field threshold exhibited potential applications on field emission devices.
We have also developed a method for the fabrication of GaN/GaP and GaP/GaN nanowires. The results of Raman spectra and HR-TEM supplied significant evidences to characterize these two products. The spectra indicated extra peak out of GaN and GaP modes and the images exhibited obvious GaN-GaP interphase of the nanowires.
GaP nanobelts had been found when we fabricated GaP nanowires through VLS mechanism. These nanobelts were studied by HR-TEM equipped with an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer. They have a rectangular-like cross section with typical widths of 40 to 900 nm, width-to-thickness ratios of 10 to 20 and lengths of up to several micrometers. This new type of nanostructure distinctive in shape from nanofilm and nanowire can be investigated for physical property and potential applications.

目錄……………………………………………………………………...I
中文摘要……………………………………………………………….IV
英文摘要……………………………………………………………….VI
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………..1
1.1半導體奈米材料…………………………………………………1
1.2量子限量化效應…………………………………………………2
1.3直遷能隙與非直遷能隙…………………………………………5
1.4奈米材料發展現況………………………………………………7
第二章 實驗部分…………………………………………………….11
2.1研究動機………………………………………………………...11
2.2.1系統性的合成氮化鎵奈米線………………………………....12
1.實驗前的準備
(1) 矽晶片的清洗………………………………………………...12
(2) 催化劑的準備………………………………………………...12
(3) 反應物的前處理……………………………………………...13
2.VLS機制成長氮化鎵奈米線………………………………….13
2.2.2合成磷化鎵奈米線…………………………………………....15
1.實驗前的準備……………………………………………...…...15
2.嘗試方法………………………………………………………15
2.2.3氮化鎵包覆磷化鎵及磷化鎵包覆氮化鎵奈米線的合成…..18
1.實驗設計………………………………………………………18
2.製程部分……………………………………………………....18
(1) 氮化鎵包覆磷化鎵奈米線………………………………18
(2) 磷化鎵包覆氮化鎵奈米線………………………………19
2.2.4磷化鎵奈米帶的發現………………………………………..20
第三章 結果與討論…………………………………………...21
3.1系統性成長氮化鎵奈米線的部分…………………………….21
1.控制AB載體的距離變化…………………………………....21
2.不同催化劑的反應結果……………………………………....21
3.昇溫速度對奈米線成長的影響……………………………....22
4.反應時間……………………………………………………....23
5.鑑定及光電性質研究………………………………………....23
3.2磷化鎵奈米線的部分………………………………………….26
3.3氮化鎵包覆磷化鎵及磷化鎵包覆氮化鎵奈米線…………….28
3.4磷化鎵奈米帶………………………………………………….30
3.5結論…………………………………………………………….32
第四章 未來展望…………………………………………………...33
參考文獻……………………………………………………………..60
附錄一:實驗藥品…………………………………………………..65
附錄二:實驗使用儀器……………………………………………..66

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