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研究生:陳順其
研究生(外文):Shun-Chi Chen
論文名稱:墾丁國家公園臺灣梅花鹿活動模式及其對棲地之利用
論文名稱(外文):The activity pattern and habitat use of Formosan sika deer (Cervus nippon taiouanus) at Kenting National Park
指導教授:王穎王穎引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ying Wang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:生物研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:台灣梅花鹿行為活動模式活動範圍食性磨痕啃剝樹皮
外文關鍵詞:Formosan sika deerbehavioractivity patternhome rangefood habitsrubbingbark stripping
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為了解臺灣梅花鹿(Cervus nippon taiouanus)野放後之行為及棲地利用,自1994年7月至2000年8月在墾丁國家公園進行調查。個體活動以日間較高。其中位移以乾季較高,休息以溼季較高。雌性個體之位移較雄性高,反芻則反之。由無線電追蹤野放個體之活動量,顯示其平均日活動為57.2%,每天有4至6次高峰,雌雄相差不大。其活動受天候及人之影響,雨天較晴天低(45.7±23.2與62.9±24.7%);陰天有落山風時亦較晴天低(52.3±24.7%與74.7±18.1%)。非假日遊客較少時較假日高(57.1% vs. 43.6%)。就野放個體活動範圍而言,所有鹿隻之活動範圍(95%MCP)為755.2公頃。平均日活動範圍為12.26±8.59公頃,乾季之季平均活動範圍為101.3公頃,濕季為51.7公頃,年活動範圍平均為159.8公頃。就食性而言,共記錄51科157種鹿食植物,其中以喬木與草本居多。其中有8種喜食及86種進食種類。在224種被鹿、水牛及山羊取食的植物中,以羊的食性較廣(204種),鹿次之(157種),牛較少(68種),其中三者共食者有52種,重疊性為36.4%。鹿與羊相似度為76.3%,鹿與牛為49.3%,牛與羊為46.7%,顯示鹿與牛或羊間之食物重疊性較牛羊間為高。鹿對當地植被影響之結果顯示,樣區內、外植被無論有無鹿隻覓食均朝正向演替。另由一區調查結果顯示,底層植物之減少與鹿食喜好程度有關。就磨樹行為而言,鹿對部分樹種有所偏好(X2,p<0.005)。計有27科55種430棵植物被磨,其中有重複被磨,重複性達63.6%。被磨致死的樹種有14種30棵,佔穿越線所有棵數之0.2%。磨痕多寡與該區食源等級高低有關(ANOVA, p<0.05)。磨痕出現的時間與鹿隻之繁殖季節有關。就啃食樹皮行為而言,啃食樹皮僅在復育第四區發現,計有10科15種共1010棵被啃,顯示鹿對被啃樹種有選擇性。啃痕各月均有出現,數量以乾季末期及濕季初期較高。被啃致死的樹種共有9種427棵,死亡率為42.3%。其有啃痕之出現應與本區鹿群密度(每公頃高於2.1頭)較其他地區(每公頃低於1.8頭)高及棲地品質差有關。
From July 1994 to August 2000 field work had been conducted to study the behavior and habitat use of the Formosan sika deer (Cervus nippon taiouanus) in Kenting National Park. The result showed that deer had higher daytime activity than that of nighttime. Movement was higher in dry season; while rest was higher in the wet season. Female had higher activity in movement; and male had higher activity in rumination. The average daily activity was 57.2% among radio-tracked deer with 4 to 6 active peaks each day. There was no difference between sexes in activity. Weather and tourist also affected deer activity. Deer had lower activity in cloudy days with strong wind (52.3%±24.7%) than those in sunny days (74.7%±18.1%). Similar trend was found between rainy days (45.7%±23.2%) and sunny days (62.9%±24.7%). Deer had higher activity in weekdays than those in weekends and other holidays (57.1% vs. 43.6%). The average annual home range was 159.8 ha and daily range was 12.24±8.59 ha. The average dry season range was 101.3ha, and wet season range was 51.7ha. In terms of food habits, 157 species mainly woody and herbaceous plants from 51 families were recorded. Among those species, 8 were preferred and 86 were commonly used by the deer. Two hundred twenty four species were recorded to be used by 3 herbivores in the study area. Among those species, 204 were used by goat, 157 by deer, 68 by water buffalo, and 52 by all 3 herbivores. The similarities between any 2 different herbivores and among 3 herbivores were 76.3% between deer and goat, 49.3% between deer and buffalo, 46.7% between goat and buffalo, and 36.4% among all 3 species. Deer had a higher food overlap with the other 2 species. The effect of deer activity on plant succession was insignificant from the observation on the plant composition in the sample plots. However, the decrease of undercover in the forest floor was related to the food habit of the deer. Four hundred thirty plants from 27 families and 55 species were rubbed by the deer. Among those plants 63.6% had repeated damages and some species was preferred (X2 test, p< 0.005). Thirty plants from 14 species had fatal damage which composed of 0.2% of all trees surveyed in transect lines. There was significant difference between number of rubbed tree and food quantity in the sampling plots (ANOVA, p< 0.05). The occurrence of tree rubbing was coincided with rutting season. The bark stripping was found only in Sec. 4 in the enclosed area. Those 1010 plants from 10 families and 15 species were bark stripped in comparison with over 100 untouched species indicated that deer selected certain species to rub. The activity was recorded every month with the peak activity in the late dry and early wet season. Four hundred and twenty seven plants from 9 species had fatal injury. The mortality of stripped trees was 42.3%. The occurrence of bark stripping in Sec. 4 was probably due to high deer density (> 2.1 deer/ha) of the area than those of other areas (< 1.8 deer/ha) and poor habitat quality.
中文摘要 ⅰ
英文摘要 ⅱ
壹、緒言 1
貳、研究地區 9
參、研究方法 10
一、個體研究行為 10
二、活動模式調查 10
三、活動範圍及空間分佈 12
四、棲地利用 14
五、台灣梅花鹿、水牛及山羊食性之調查 15
六、臺灣梅花鹿對當地植物之影響 16
肆、結果 19
一、野化個體行為 19
二、活動模式 20
三、活動範圍及空間分佈 22
四、棲地利用 24
五、臺灣梅花鹿、水牛及山羊之食性 26
六、臺灣梅花鹿對當地植被的影響 31
伍、討論 39
一、野化臺灣梅花鹿個體行為的探討 39
二、臺灣梅花鹿活動模式的探討 40
三、臺灣梅花鹿活動範圍及空間分布的探討 41
四、棲地利用 44
五、鹿與共域草食獸牛羊之食性 46
六、磨樹及啃剝樹皮對當地植物可能造成之影響 53
七、臺灣梅花鹿對植被環境之影響 59
陸、總結 62
參考文獻 64
表目次
表1. 全日蒐集之無線電訊號以每半小時不同取樣長度估算活動比例(%)之分佈
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表2. 無線電定位鹿隻活動範圍中不同定位點數估算活動面積(公頃)之分佈
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77
表3. 野化台灣梅花鹿個體之行為比例(%)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------77
表4. 野放臺灣梅花鹿日活動模式中活動所佔比率(%)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------78
表5. 野放臺灣梅花鹿日活動模式之活動高峰數
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------78
表6. 野放臺灣梅花鹿雌性個體之活動範圍(公頃)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------79
表7. 野放臺灣梅花鹿雄性個體之活動範圍(公頃)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------80
表8. 台灣梅花鹿休息場所及排遺在各植被環境出現之比例(%)
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表9 . 台灣梅花鹿食用植物屬性之分佈
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------81
表10 . 台灣梅花鹿食用植物調查方法比較
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------81
表11. 復育4區穿越線上台灣梅花鹿食痕之記錄植種
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表12. 植生樣圍籬內外植種及數量之分佈
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表13. 復育1區調查樣區中之優勢植物及其所佔總數之比例
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表14. 復育1區穿越線上植種被梅花鹿磨之概況
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表15. 台灣梅花鹿啃剝樹皮棵數及所佔比率
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------86
表16. 復育1區穿越線上植株大小數量、被鹿磨數量及所佔比例(%)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------86
表17. 台灣梅花鹿啃剝樹皮之啃痕特性
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------87
表18. 復育1區穿越線上被鹿磨主要樹種數量分布及受害概況
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------87
表19. 復育1區樹木被台灣梅花鹿磨之各類植型之比例
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------88
表20. 復育1區被台灣梅花鹿磨之植株在不同地形之分布
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------88
表21. 復育1區樹木被台灣梅花鹿磨之磨痕所在處之地形概況及磨痕方向
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------89
表22. 社頂地區穿越線上地表狀況與台灣梅花鹿磨痕及排遺量之分佈
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------89
圖目次
圖1. 墾丁臺灣梅花鹿研究地區之相對位置與樣線及無線電收訊點之分佈------------90
圖2. 恆春地區月平均溫度(℃)及降水量(mm) ------------------------------------------------91
圖3. 無線電訊號次數與梅花鹿活動比例之關係---------------------------------------------91
圖4 . S6b型無線電訊號次數與活動比例之關係----------------------------------------------92
圖5 . S9型無線電訊號次數與活動比例之關係------------------------------------------------92
圖6. 梅花鹿每一回合反芻時間的分佈----------------------------------------------------------93
圖7. 梅花鹿個體主要行為發生後最常接連發生的行為比例(%)--------------------------93
圖8 復育區野化台灣梅花鹿覓食和位移的關係----------------------------------------------94
圖9 復育區野化台灣梅花鹿日活動模式-------------------------------------------------------94
圖10. 野化臺灣梅花鹿靜立與靜臥行為之日變化--------------------------------------------95
圖11. 野化臺灣梅花鹿反芻與攝食行為之日變化--------------------------------------------95
圖12. 野化臺灣梅花鹿位移與修飾行為之日變化--------------------------------------------96
圖13. 野化臺灣梅花鹿雌雄個體活動模式之日變化-----------------------------------------96
圖14. 野放臺灣梅花鹿雌雄個體乾濕季之日活動範圍-------------------------------------97
圖15. 野放臺灣梅花鹿雌雄個體乾溼季之季活動範圍-------------------------------------97
圖16. 野放臺灣梅花鹿無線電定位之歷年分佈-----------------------------------------------98
圖17. 野放臺灣梅花鹿活動範圍內草原及非草原之分佈-----------------------------------99
圖18. 臺灣梅花鹿餵食試驗中對不同型態植種之喜好程度-------------------------------100
圖19. 臺灣梅花鹿餵食植種在不同區域出現之頻度----------------------------------------100
圖20. 臺灣梅花鹿與共域牛羊食性之比較----------------------------------------------------101
圖21. 共域草食獸鹿牛羊取食各型態植種比例之分布-------------------------------------101
圖22. 社頂地區樹木被台灣梅花鹿磨之植株1公尺及磨痕處之樹圍數量的分佈----102
圖23. 社頂地區樹木被台灣梅花鹿磨之磨痕在不同樣區出現之月變化----------------102
圖24. 社頂地區臺灣梅花鹿啃剝樹皮棵數之月變化----------------------------------------103
圖25. 復育區外台灣梅花鹿磨痕在不同食源等級植被樣站之分布----------------------103
附錄目次
附錄1. 研究期間及調查人力之分布---------------------------------------------------104
附錄2. 社頂地區野化個體各時刻之活動比例(%)----------------------------------105
附錄3. 社頂地區無線電訊號測得野放個體各時刻之活動比例(%)-------------106
附錄4. 梅花鹿行為的分類與定義-----------------------------------------------------110
附錄5. 社頂地區穿越線植種相對頻度(%)、鹿、牛及羊攝食情形-------------111
附錄6. 社頂地區三區地表植種及落葉樹種取樣調查之學名及出現數量-----118
附錄7. 社頂地區草食獸食用植物名錄-----------------------------------------------120
附錄8. 社頂地區台灣梅花鹿所磨植種之名錄--------------------------------------128
附錄9. 社頂地區台灣梅花鹿啃剝植種之名錄--------------------------------------130
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