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研究生:江友中
研究生(外文):Yu-Chung Chiang
論文名稱:八丈芒分子地理親緣之研究
論文名稱(外文):Molecular Phylogeography Study of Miscanthus condensatus Hack
指導教授:黃生黃生引用關係周昌弘周昌弘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shong HuangChang-Hung Chou
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:生物研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:158
中文關鍵詞:八丈芒地理親緣族群分化網狀樹狀關係分析過去分隔事件乙醇去氫酶1天擇
外文關鍵詞:Miscanthus condensatusphylogeographypopulation differentiationnested clade analysispast fragmentationalcohol dehydrogenase 1modes of selection
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利用隨機擴增多型性DNA分析、胞器DNA與細胞核乙醇去氫酶I(AdhI)部分分子序列資料研究太平洋島弧分佈之八丈芒族群遺傳變異,根據族群具有低核苷酸歧異度及高基因型歧異度,中性假說測驗在葉綠體、AdhI外顯子總資料、非同義性和同義性核苷酸變異皆呈現負值,顯示長時間受瓶頸效應影響,維持低有效族群數量狀態。根據葉綠體DNA之分化指數與相對應地理距離對數值相關性分析,推論八丈芒族群受到Kerama Gap形成之地理隔離分化(vicariance)事件導致南北區域族群分離,區域內族群分佈呈現隔離分化(isolation by distance)。根據NJ親緣關係樹、最小關聯網狀樹狀圖和Dc與Dn關聯性分析顯示,推論太平洋島弧之八丈芒祖先族群,具有數個古老分枝基因型,在冰河時期因海平面下降,經由陸橋分別進入Kerama Gap南北地區,因先驅者效應影響各島嶼族群產生基因漂變,導致分枝基因型頻度改變或消失,又因突變和重組各自衍生出新基因型,形成現今各族群之分枝基因型分佈情形。依據兩兩基因型之AdhI外顯子非同義性和同義性取代率比較結果,在譜系上之部分同域分佈近緣基因型間,非同義性取代率大於同義性取代率,不同地理區域呈現低演化速率,顯示在同域分佈近緣基因型間,存在達爾文正天擇現象,此現象之原因可能為八丈芒分佈於島嶼之濱海地區,受到環境中之不同鹽沫及鹽性沙地的棲地壓力所造成。
Population and geographic structure of Miscanthus condensatus, a clonal grass distributed along the coasts of Japan, Ryukyu and Taiwan Islands, was estimated based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints, nucleotide variation of the nuclear alcohol dehydrogenase 1 locus, atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer of cpDNA and trnD-trnT spacer of mtDNA. RAPD fingerprinting revealed significant differentiation among populations. Like many inbreeding species, low levels of nucleotide diversity were detected at all nuclear and organelle loci. The likely phylogeographic pattern of M. condensatus, as reflected by the correlation between population differentiation values based on the cpDNA variation and geographic distance, represents isolation between north and south Kerama gap since the mid-Pleistocene. The phytogeographic pattern shown in the reconstructed network and nested clade analysis suggests that the present-day M. condensatus populations in the Pacific island arcs from Japan to Taiwan were derived from ancestral populations with multi-haplotypes in continental Asia, which migrated to the island via land bridge and super-island. Given small number of colonists and infrequent gene flow, genetic drift would result in among-population heterogeneity and within-population homogeneity. Significantly negative Tajima’s S statistics were detected in overall exons and replacement sites of the Adh 1 locus, agreeing with the demographic expansion hypothesis. Pairwise comparisons of the Ka/Ks ratio at the Adh 1 locus revealed that lineages linking closely related populations of the species appeared to be under Darwinian positive selection.
目次
附表目次˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙III-V
附圖目次˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙VI-VIII
摘要˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙IX
Abstract˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙X
壹、前言˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙1-19
貳、材料與方法˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙20-38
參、結果˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙39-98
肆、討論˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙99-125
五、結論˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙126
六、參考文獻˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙127-155
七、附錄˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙156-158
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