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研究生:林怡美
研究生(外文):Yi-Mei Lin
論文名稱:恆春地區晚更新世二枚貝類殼體穩定同位素及化學元素訊號所指示之環境變遷
論文名稱(外文):Late Pleistocene Environmental ChangeIndicated by Stable Isotope and Element Compositions of Bivalve Shells from Hengchun Area
指導教授:米泓生米泓生引用關係
指導教授(外文):Horng-Sheng Mii
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:地球科學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:晚更新世二枚貝穩定同位素化學元素恆春地區環境變遷
外文關鍵詞:Late PleistoceneBivalve ShellsStable IsotopeElementHengchun AreaEnvironmental Change
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本研究分析了採自台灣西南沿海現生種的Anadara granosa(M1、M2)以及恆春晚更新世地層─四溝層上部 (FU)、下部 (FL) 的A. granosa化石,共四個標本的穩定碳、氧同位素及化學元素的組成,來探討年際間的環境變化。
現生標本的δ18O值多落於利用同位素平衡方程式計算出霰石之氧同位素應有的數值範圍(-2.6~-0.3‰),表示此種貝類殼體與水體氧同位素數值大致可達成同位素平衡。化石標本的主要組成礦物仍為霰石,礦物結晶構造清晰可見,表示未受到成岩作用影響,因此其同位素訊號應能夠代表四溝層沉積時的環境訊號。所有標本的氧同位素數值變化,在貝類生長早期振幅大;後期振幅小,其原因可能是貝類達到成熟生殖期,將部分能量消耗在生殖,導致殼體對於環境訊號的紀錄有所缺失,故本研究未將貝類達成熟生殖期後之數據用在古環境重建之討論中。FU、FL的碳、氧同位素呈現線性正相關,顯示其在四溝層沉積時的生長環境,潟湖水體受到顯著不同程度淡水與海水混合的影響。
化石的δ18O值較現生種的δ18O值整體約高1.5‰,主要是由於冰川效應所影響。年際間氧同位素數值變化扣除最大的溫度效應部份,淡水注入影響水體氧同位素變化量在四溝層下部平均有1.4‰,而在上部四溝層所造成的變化量減少變為1.1‰,表示下部四溝層至上部四溝層沉積過程中,年淡水注入量有些許減少的變化。
Mg/Ca值在二枚貝類 A. granosa 霰石殼體中與δ18O值部份成反相變化,故可能也是溫度的函數。新陳代謝是影響殼體中Sr/Ca含量最主要的因素,Sr/Ca值在各標本中都呈現逐漸降低的趨勢,顯示貝殼成長過程中,新陳代謝速率有逐漸減緩的現象。A. granosa殼體Ba/Ca值應表示水體中營養鹽的多寡,且與Sr/Ca值呈現同相變化,顯示出該貝類的新陳代謝速率可能亦與營養鹽含量有關。
由於四溝層上下層位的δ18O值並無顯著的差異,可推斷當時海退現象應由陸地隆升所造成,並非冰川效應所導致。而下部四溝層的δ13C值較上部四溝層小1.0‰,Ba/Ca含量約大13μmole/mole,顯示陸地隆升使得環境從潟湖環境變化成河口環境,導致營養鹽減少,而間接影響水體中溶解無機碳的同位素數值。若假設當時海水的δ18O值為1.5‰,則當時冬季的海水溫度約為24℃,與現今溫度並無太大差異。
We have analyzed the isotope and element compositions of two modern and two Late Pleistocene Anadara granosa shells to quantitatively characterize the paleoenvironmental change in Szekou Formation, Hengchun area. The δ18O values of modern shells are in good agreement with those calculated values based on available seawater δ18O values and temperature ranges, thus reach apparently isotopic equilibrium. Fossil shells, retaining the originally aragonitic mineralogy, indicate that these shells are not altered by diagenesis.
Excluding data from the period of sexual maturity, average δ18O value of fossil A. granosa is 1.5‰ greater than that of modern species. This difference is probably due to global glaciation effect and is consistent with previous studies. Both fossil specimens show positive linear correlation between δ18O and δ13C values whereas this relationship is not seen for modern samples. This is probably because these fossil shells lived in a lagoon environment whereas modern samples lived in an estuary area where is more opened to seawater. Therefore, samples from Szekou Formation show more significant fresh water-seawater mixing signals than modern ones. Excluding the possible annual temperature variation, the excess -1.4‰ (Lower Szekou Fm.) and -1.1‰ (Upper Szekou Fm.) indicate that the extent of riverine input at Lower Szekou Formation (FL) was little bit greater than that of Upper Szekou Formation (FU).
Episodic minima of Mg/Ca ratios are generally coincide to δ18O maxima. Thus, Mg/Ca ratio may be also varied as a function of temperature in the aragonitic shells. Because the Sr/Ca ratios decrease with tardy metabolism during growth process, metabolic activity of A. granosa should be the major factor controlling Sr/Ca ratio. Ba/Ca ratio is a indicator of nutrition. Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca data show a broadly positively covariant trend demonstrate that metabolism of A. granosa is also related to nutrition.
There is no significant difference in δ18O values between FL and FU. Therefore, the regression occurred from FL to FU was most likely caused by land uplift instead of global ice volume change. Average δ13C value of FL is 1‰ less than that of FU, whereas Ba/Ca ratio of FL is 13μmol/mol greater than that of FU. Land uplift may have changed Szekou depositional environment from lagoon to estuary and caused decrease in nutrient supply. Increase in δ13C of dissolve inorganic carbon of water from FL to FU may be caused by reduced relative biodiversity and need to be further studied. Assuming the δ18O of seawater was 1.5‰, the winter seawater temperature of studied area was about 24℃. The calculated Late Pleistocene seawater temperature is comparable to that of modern observations.
目錄
頁碼
Abstract………………………………………………………………V
摘要…………………………………………………………………VII
誌謝…………………………………………………………………IX
目錄……………………………………………………………………X
圖目…………………………………………………………………XIII
表目…………………………………………………………………XVII
第一章、緒論…………………………………………………………1
1.1前言……………………………………………………1
1.2前人研究………………………………………………5
1.2.1二枚貝類及其應用…………………………………5
1.2.2恆春西台地四溝層的研究…………………………8
1.3研究目的………………………………………………10
第二章、研究區域及標本……………………………………………11
2.1西南海域……………………………………………11
2.2四溝層地質背景……………………………………11
2.3貝類之生活習性……………………………………18
第三章、研究方法……………………………………………………20
3.1貝類切片標本製作及X-ray分析…………………20
3.2氣體比值型質譜儀(IRMS)分析……………………20
3.3電感耦合電漿源質譜儀(ICP-MS)分析……………22
第四章、結果…………………………………………………………23
4.1切片標本觀察及組成………………………………23
4.2穩定碳氧同位素……………………………………26
4.3化學元素……………………………………………32
第五章、討論…………………………………………………………35
5.1穩定碳氧同位素……………………………………35
5.1.1現生標本的生理及環境訊號…………………35
5.1.2化石標本紀錄…………………………………37
5.2微量元素……………………………………………43
5.2.1鎂元素…………………………………………43
5.2.2鋇元素…………………………………………44
5.2.3鍶元素…………………………………………45
5.3恆春西台地晚更新世環境變遷……………………48
第六章、結論…………………………………………………………51
參考文獻………………………………………………………………52
附錄一、穩定同位素分析之數值……………………………………61
附錄二、化學元素分析之數值………………………………………66
作者簡介………………………………………………………………68
圖目
圖 頁碼
圖1.1 雙殼綱雙柱類殼層圖,A─縱切面;B─橫切面。(取自
戴等人,1995) ………………………………………………6
圖1.2 二枚貝類殼體分泌示意圖(修改自戴等人,1995) …………6
圖1.3 根據貝類化石動物群集所建立之四溝層環境變化(Chen et al., 1991)。FU表示上部標本採集層位,FL表示下部標本採集層位(EV:Eucrassatella-Venus群集、CF:Conus-Fissidentalium群集、M:Modiolus群集、CS:Cultellus-Solecurtus群集、PT:Pinna-Turritella群集、C:Crassostrea群集、BC群集:Batillaria-Cyclina群
集)。……………………………………………………………9
圖2.1.1 台灣海峽春、夏季氧同位素分布圖(修改自張,2000) …12
圖2.1.2 台灣海峽秋、冬季氧同位素分布圖(修改自張,2000) …13
圖2.2 台灣附近海域水深二十公尺夏季、冬季平均溫度。星號表示現生標本採集地點。(取自國科會海洋科學研究中
心網頁) ……………………………………………………14
圖2.3 恆春西台地地質圖。A─全區地質圖,B─區域放大地質圖,C─剖面圖。箭頭表示化石標本採集地點(FU=上部
四溝層,FL=下部四溝層)。(修改自Chen et al., 1991) …15
圖2.4 恆春西台地地層層序及接觸關係圖,曲折黑線區域代表
不整合接觸。(取自吳與陳,1990) …………………………16
圖2.5 A. granosa 的型態。A─外部觀;B─內部觀;C─側面
觀;D─韌帶方向觀。………………………………………19
圖3.1 A.反射光顯微鏡下所拍攝之貝殼切片標本,明顯可見生長紋。B.與A為同一標本,细線條表示生長紋及套膜線,黑色圓點及短線表示微取樣之位置,主要在中殼層
沿生長方向取樣。……………………………………………21
圖4.1 A.化石標本粉末經X光繞射分析結果。B.方解石及霰石
標本X光繞射之圖形。………………………………………24
圖4.2 在透射光顯微鏡下觀察到的平板結構的內殼層(EN)及柱
纖結構的中殼層(ME)。……………………………………25
圖4.3 現生A. granosa標本(M1、M2)及化石A. granosa標本(FL、FU)殼體碳、氧同位素記錄(平均值的線段長度為
兩個標準偏差)。……………………………………………27
圖4.4 現生標本左右殼同位素紀錄。結果顯示左右殼同位素紀
錄大致相符。…………………………………………………28
圖4.5 M1標本碳、氧同位素及微量元素含量隨生長的變化。直線顯示Mg/Ca的區域低值可對應氧同位素區域高值。
δ18O及δ13C座標軸低值向上。……………………………29
圖4.6 FU標本碳、氧同位素及微量元素含量隨生長的變化。直線顯示Mg/Ca的區域低值可對應氧同位素區域高值。
δ18O及δ13C座標軸低值向上。……………………………30
圖4.7 FL標本碳、氧同位素及微量元素含量隨生長的變化。直線顯示Mg/Ca的區域低值可對應氧同位素區域高值。
δ18O及δ13C座標軸低值向上。……………………………31
圖4.8 M1、FU、FL中Sr/Ca含量對應Ba/Ca含量作圖,兩者
間呈現正相關的分佈。………………………………………34
圖5.1 現生標本M1、M2的氧同位素數值沿生長方向變化。M1在3.8cm後,M2在4.0cm後進入成熟生殖期。(δ18O
及δ13C座標軸低值向上) …………………………………36
圖5.2現生(M1、M2)、上部四溝層(FU)、下部四溝層(FL)及四溝層錐螺(未發表資料)、現生錐螺(彭和汪,1990)碳、氧同位素數值。方框及環境解釋取自彭等人
(1990)。………………………………………………………38
圖5.3 化石標本FU、FL的同位素紀錄。FU在6.6cm後,FL在7.2cm後進入成熟生殖期。氧同位素紀錄扣除最大的溫度效應1.1‰,為淡水注入的影響,下部標本受淡水影響平均有1.4‰,上部標本受淡水影響平均有1.1‰。
(δ18O及δ13C座標軸低值向上)………………………………41
圖5.4晚更新世恆春西台地古環境重建圖(取自Huang, 1988)。…45
圖5.5晚更新世恆春四溝層下部古環境重建圖(修改自Chen et al., 1991, Huang, 1988, Wang et al., 1991。動物群集說明
請見圖1.3)。…………………………………………………49
圖5.6晚更新世恆春四溝層上部古環境重建圖(修改自Chen et al., 1991, Huang, 1988, Wang et al., 1991。動物群集說明
請見圖1.3)。…………………………………………………49
表目
表 頁碼
表4.1 各個標本的形貌及野外資料…………………………………23
表4.2 Mg/Ca、Sr/Ca、Ba/Ca在各個標本中的含量統計表………32
表5.1 FU、F L碳、氧同位素相關性統計資料…………………37
表5.2 FU、FL碳、氧同位素差異統計資料………………………39
表5.3化石標本與線生標本碳、氧同位素差異統計資料…………40
表5.4 Sr/Ca在珊瑚、貝類殼體及無機過程生成的霰石中的DMe
值(取自Stecher et al., 1996) ………………………………47
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