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研究生:徐敏雄
研究生(外文):Miin-Shyong Shyu
論文名稱:市民社會理論對社群學習的啟示
論文名稱(外文):Civil Society as the Learning in/between Communities
指導教授:顧忠華顧忠華引用關係陳雪雲陳雪雲引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:社會教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:364
中文關鍵詞:公民社會公民教育公民資格市民社會社區教育社群學習托克維爾
外文關鍵詞:civil societycivic educationcitizenshipcommunity learninglearning between communitieslearning in communityTocqueville
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:19
一個市民社會需要怎樣的公民,取決於我們希望過怎樣的社會生活?而理想公民的培育,除了可以透過學校教育,市民社會中各式社群生活具有的學習功能,在終身學習社會中將愈形重要。為釐清理想市民社會的主要特徵和維繫機制,以及社群學習對實踐理想市民社會所能發揮的作用,本文首先從T. Hobbes和J. Locke為代表的「英國社會契約論」、A. Smith和A. Ferguson為代表的「蘇格蘭文明社會論」、C. S. Montesquieu、G. W. Hegel和A. Tocqueville為代表的「中介團體論」,以及K. Marx和A. Gramsci為代表的「社會衝突論」等四大學派思想進行考察。之後,再針對不同市民社會模式與社群學習之間的關聯性進行分析,也就是釐清以下三個重要議題:1.不同市民社會模式下的社群學習,能否同時兼顧公/私領域中的個人/社群認同與德性之培養?2.不同市民社會模式下,公共秩序與公民資格的規定與社群差異性和自主性的保障如何拿捏分寸,才能確保每個公民和民間社群既能享有平等、公平且充分的資源參與公共生活,又不危及他們在價值和文化上的多元發展空間?3.不同市民社會模式下的社群學習,能否建立一套有助於個人和社群以長期利益為考量的機制,進而促使個體、社群和市民社會的永續發展?最後,我們還要根據當代社會的多元化特徵,綜合比較這九位學者提出的理想社會,尋找出最能兼顧公/私領域內個體/社群權益與自主性的生活方式;之後,再根據這個「理想市民社會圖像」,思考「社群學習」應該秉持何種原則與精神,學習何種知識、德性與能力,才能實現並維繫這個理想市民社會的願景。
根據本研究的結果,我們發現到Tocqueville主張的市民社會理論,最能在公/私領域內透過法律和道德的規範,將個體/社群在利益、價值、道德等各方面取得一個平衡點,使公/私領域內的個體/社群可以在某種程度的「一致性」的要求下,保有最多自由發展「差異性」空間。在這樣的理想市民社會裡,經濟上,「正確理解的自利原則」連結了公/私領域中的個人/社群的利益;政治與法律上,「民主」和「法治」理想的實踐強化了法律的適切性及其被執行時的公正性,並且以此加添公/私領域中個人/社群的守法意願和信心;在智識與道德上,公/私領域中群體生活的經驗使得每個公民/私人能在日常生活中培養守法、包容和尊重的公民德性,以及理性溝通的公民能力,亦即厚實了「民主法治社會」的落實基礎;在文化上,藉由國家補助社群發展所需經費,可促進不同社群之間的相互了解、包容與尊重;最後,透過國家與市民社會相互合作來保障公民的社會權,不僅可以增進社群與個人之間的互助能力與人際關懷情誼,以達到累積社會資本的理想,同時亦能累積公民參與公共事務的實際能力與資源。
至於社群學習在此理想市民社會中的角色功能,基本上,無論是公/私領域中個人/社群認同的形構、公共/私人德性的培養、勞動生產技能的習得,都必定源於己身所從出的社群文化和公共制度。透過社群共通語言的使用,個體才得以與其他社群成員展開各式互動關係,並且在「榮譽心」和「同理心」的作用下,學習社群讚許的道德規範、生活方式、以及各種有助於提昇自身經濟生活水準的生產技能,並將這些落實到生活世界的各個角落。也就是說,無論是經濟生產技能、理性溝通能力、互助合作的精神,或是特殊語言文化的習得,都必須藉由參與公/私領域的社群生活才能完成。在第一層(市民權、強制性社會權)和第二層(文化權、政治權和非強制性社會權)公民資格均能落實的前提下,市民社會裡的每一個個人和社群,才能站在互為主體的平等立場上,經由理性對話的過程,轉化或提昇各自的智識與道德,進而了解、包容甚至尊重那些雖不同於自己的價值立場,但卻也不違反第一層公民資格要求的社群。簡言之,平等參與、互為主體性、理性對話、以及智識與道德的轉化或提昇,是社群學習的基本原則;至於社群學習所要習得的內容,則包含生產技能、理性溝通與批判反省的公民能力、容忍或尊重不違反第一層公民資格要求之社群差異的公民德性、互助合作的社群精神,以及承襲社群的歷史文化的遺產。
I believe that idea civil society is best understood as the social learning in/between communities. In this thesis, I will examine the model of civil society put forward by political and social philosophers including T. Hobbes, J. Locke, A. Smith, A. Ferguson, C. S. Montesquieu, G. W. Hegel, A. Tocqueville, K. Marx and A. Gramsci, and then, compare their discourse about what civil society is and how make it working sustainable.
I identify that the model of civil society developed by Tocqueville serves the learning in/between communities best. The central idea of Tocqueville’s position, the civil society is theorized as communities within which individuals are socialized as active citizens. For instance, he stresses that civil society is the foundation against despotism of the state and disassociation of the society. Furthermore, he highlights that civil society is the best condition of human interaction through which people and communities maintain the public/private identities, memberships, characters and the ”unity” of civil society as well.
Following Tocquevilleian tradition, I suggest that people and communities exist in interaction, and combine their material enjoyment and the loving of freedom with participation in public affairs. Therefore, this thesis concludes that equal participation, mutual understanding, rational dialogue, intellectual and morality transforming or lifting are identified as central to significant social learning in/between communities. Put it differently, through learning in/between communities, labor skills, civic capacities of rational communication and critical reflection, civic virtues of tolerance or respect those others who own diversified values and life styles, are acquired. Nevertheless, people and communities is essential to obey the civil rights in modern civil society.
第一章 理想巿民社會實現與社群學習 --------------------1
第一節 研究背景---------------------------------------1
壹、台灣民主化歷程與巿民社會興起-----------------------1
貳、台灣巿民社會拓展與社群學習推動---------------------3
參、國外終身學習文獻對巿民社會與社群學習之討論------- 4
第二節 研究目的與重要概念釐清------------------------ 6
壹、「巿民社會」概念釐清與理論範疇---------------- 7
貳、從「個人式學習」到「社群學習」---------------- 11
參、社群學習與理想市民社會實踐---------------------- 15
肆、研究目的--------------------------------------- 19
第二章 英國社會契約論的巿民社會理論與社群學習----- 21
第一節 Hobbes的巿民社會理論與社群學習--------------- 24
壹、Hobbes的巿民社會理論------------------------- 25
貳、Hobbes的巿民社會理論對社群學習之啟示------------- 37
第二節 Locke的巿民社會理論與社群學習----------------- 54
壹、Locke的巿民社會理論-------------------------- 54
貳、Locke的巿民社會理論對社群學習之啟示-------------- 60
第三章 蘇格蘭文明社會論的巿民社會理論與社群學習---- 81
第一節 Smith的巿民社會理論與社群學習------------------83
壹、Smith的巿民社會理論--------------------------- 83
貳、Smith的巿民社會理論對社群學習之啟示--------------- 93
第二節 Ferguson的巿民社會理論與社群學習--------------114
壹、Ferguson的巿民社會理論------------------------114
貳、Ferguson的巿民社會理論對社群學習之啟示------------124
第四章 中介組織論的巿民社會理論與社群學習-----------140
第一節 Montesquieu的巿民社會理論與社群學習----------143
壹、Montesquieu的巿民社會理論---------------------143
貳、Montesquieu的巿民社會理論對社群學習之啟示--------- 154
第二節 Hegel的巿民社會理論與社群學習----------------- 174
壹、Hegel的巿民社會理論--------------------------- 174
貳、Hegel的巿民社會理論對社群學習之啟示--------------- 186
第三節 Tocqueville的巿民社會理論與社群學習----------- 211
壹、Tocqueville的巿民社會理論----------------------212
貳、Tocqueville的巿民社會理論對社群學習之啟示----------221
第五章 社會衝突論的巿民社會理論與社群學習-------------245
第一節 Marx的巿民社會理論與社群學習-------------------248
壹、Marx的巿民社會理論------------------------------248
貳、Marx的巿民社會理論對社群學習之啟示------------------259
第二節 Gramsci的巿民社會理論與社群學習-----------------276
壹、Gramsci的巿民社會理論---------------------------276
貳、Gramsci的巿民社會理論對社群學習之啟示--------------287
第六章 當代巿民社會中的社群學習-----------------------309
第一節 各派巿民社會理論內涵比較---------------------309
第二節 各派巿民社會理論對社群學習的啟示之比較-------314
第三節 理想巿民社會圖像之建構-----------------------322
第四節 邁向理想巿民社會的社群學習-------------------338
參考書目-----------------------------------------------345
中文資料---------------------------------------------- 345
外文中譯資料------------------------------------------ 348
英文部分---------------------------------------------- 352
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