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研究生:李美滿
研究生(外文):Mei-Maan Lee
論文名稱:探討高二學生對生物課本圖片詮釋之相關因素
論文名稱(外文):A study of factors associated with the interpretation of diagrams in biology texts by eleventh graders
指導教授:譚克平譚克平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hak-Ping Tam
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:科學教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:圖片圖形附圖
外文關鍵詞:diagrampictureillustration
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:32
  • 點閱點閱:441
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
在生物教科書中,附圖佔著很重要的一部分。本研究嘗試探討現行高中生物教科書中附圖的類型及學生對生物課本圖形所持有的看法。另外,亦探討影響學生讀圖的因素,是否受閱讀習慣、直覺法則、箭頭符號及景深的不同所影響。
生物課本附圖之分析中發現,在現行高中三種生物課本中,附圖比例甚高,平均每頁有1.18張的圖形。而圖形的種類依Levin的分類方式,高一基礎生物表徵類圖片居多(67%),高二生命科學及高三生物則解釋性圖形增多(平均約50%),組織類圖形亦比基礎生物所佔比例高,移轉類圖形在各冊闕如。
本研究以北市及高市各兩個高二班級學生為問卷調查研究對象,他們對生物課本圖片支持學習多持肯定看法,尤其是自然類組學生更重視圖形對生物學習的影響。而在了解圖形意義的方式,多數學生是利用圖形旁邊的文字註解。
直覺法則的表現研究中,多數高二學生在生物個體大小及其細胞大小間,無More A--More B的直覺偏差。在對不同形狀細菌的比較,有30%學生會依著體積相等所以表面積的理由而作出類似Same A--Same B直覺誤判。而另有30%的學生則因圖形的感覺,而有類似直覺法則中More A--More B的表現。
研究發現,課本中解釋類圖形及組織類圖形常運用箭頭符號來引導學生讀圖,但若不慎使用,亦會造成學生有另有想法。例如,動態感的增強、量大小的暗示及圖形元件間的層疊影響。
在景深探討方面,實驗結果支持Reid的發現,亦即前景元件較易被學生發現及記憶,中景元件次之,而後景元件則最易被忽略及遺忘。
根據本研究之發現與心得,本研究建議教師宜有效利用各類圖形的認知功能特性,協助學生學習,並且營造學習環境,讓學生自行作圖,以強化學生解釋圖形及運用圖形的能力。教科書圖片編輯者亦應考量學生對圖形可能產生的另有想法,而謹慎運用圖形符號。對於景深記憶之效應,可考量將圖形中欲強調的重點置於圖形前景。
至於未來研究方向,可考慮二維圖示的下中上區是否有類似三維圖形的前中後景的景深記憶效應之研究,有關此類圖形效益之研究,值得日後研究者深入探討之。
Book illustrations play an important role in the textbooks of Biology. This study aims to identify the types of illustrations appearing in the biology textbooks, as well as find out students’ opinions toward these illustrations. Besides, the study also investigates whether students’ comprehension of the illustrations is influenced by such factors as reading habits, the intuitive rules and the difference in the depth of field.
After analyzing the occurrence of illustrations in the three currently available editions of high school biology textbooks, it is found that there is a high frequency, with 1.18 pieces each page on average. As for the types of illustrations, according to Levin’s classification, it is observed that there are representational illustrations account for 67% of the occurrence in the textbooks for the first-year students, while interpretational illustrations increase to 50% in second-year and third-year books. Organizational illustrations also appear more often in the second-year and third-year books than in the first-year ones. However no transformational illustrations are observed in these textbooks.
The study is based on the result of the questionnaire given to four classes of high school students in their second year two classes from Kaohsiung and two from Taipei. Most of them agree that the illustrations in the biology textbooks help learning. And students who take more scientific courses put more emphasis on learning by illustrations. Most students comprehend the illustrations by reading the accompanied explanatory words.
As to the expression of the intuitive rules, most students do not show the “More A─More B” intuition when judging the relationship between the size of a given creature and the size of its cell. However, when the judgment involves bacteria of different shapes, 30% of the students derive problematic conclusion by following the “Same A─Same B” intuitive rule, in this case, “Same volume─Same surface area.” And another 30% demonstrate a “More A─More B” intuition based on the impression they get from the illustration.
In interpretational and organizational illustrations arrow signs are usually used the guide students in comprehension. However, incautious use of them may result in students’ alternative thinking, such as the increase of the sense of dynamics, the implication of the amount and the misinterpretation of the relationship among the illustrated items.
The investigation into depth of field supports Reid’s finding. That is, the foreground items are easier for students to see and remember, while background items tend to be ignored and forgotten, mid-ground items stand in between.
Based on the findings in the study, teachers are suggested to make the best use of the cognitive function of each illustration type to facilitate students’ learning. Teachers can also create a learning environment in which students make graphs for themselves, so that they are more able to interpret or make use of the graphs. The illustration editors of textbooks showed also take students’ possible alternative thinking into consideration, and be cautious with the use if signs or symbols. As to effects of depth of field on memory, it is plausible to place the items to be emphasized at the foreground.
For further research, the effect of zone of field on memory in two-dimensioned picture seems to be a topic worth studying. Do the upper, middle and lower part of a two-dimensioned picture present the same memory effect on students as the foreground, mid-ground, and the background in a three-dimensioned picture? Future study like this hopefully can generate more insight on “how to learn better.”
摘要……………………………………………………………… Ⅰ
目錄……………………………………………………………… Ⅱ
圖次……………………………………………………………… Ⅲ
表次……………………………………………………………… Ⅳ
第壹章 緒論…………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究動機……………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的……………………………………… 4
第三節 待答問題……………………………………… 4
第四節 名詞定義及解釋……………………………… 5
第五節 研究範圍與限制……………………………… 6
第貳章 文獻探討………………………………………………… 8
第一節 圖文訊息處理與圖形效益(PSE)……………… 8
第二節 圖形的功能…………………………………… 17
第三節 直覺法則……………………………………… 24
第四節 圖形元素……………………………………… 27
第參章 研究方法………………………………………………… 36
第一節 研究設計……………………………………… 36
第二節 研究對象……………………………………… 37
第三節 研究工具……………………………………… 38
第四節 研究流程……………………………………… 41
第肆章 研究結果………………………………………………… 46
第一節 各類功能圖形在高中生物教科書的使用情形 46
第二節 讀圖習慣及圖形相關元素探討……………… 52
第三節 景深知覺探討………………………………… 82
第五章 討論與建議……………………………………………… 110
第一節 本研究的發現………………………………… 110
第二節 教育上的意涵………………………………… 113
第三節 未來研究方向之建議………………………… 117
參考文獻…………………………………………………………… 119
附錄一 讀圖習慣及圖片相關元素探討問卷…………………… 125
附錄二 景深知覺探討圖片……………………………………… 134
附錄三 國中生物課本(86年版)細胞相關插圖………………. 137
附錄四 研究者所用細胞模式圖講義(統編版高中基礎生物圖) 138
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