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研究生:劉憶萍
研究生(外文):Yi-ping Liu
論文名稱:國語六個基本顏色詞之認知研究
論文名稱(外文):A cognitive approach to the understanding of the six basic color words in Mandarin Chinese
指導教授:畢永峨畢永峨引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yung-o Biq
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:顏色感知顏色概念化轉喻延伸隱喻延伸任意延伸
外文關鍵詞:color perceptioncolor conceptualizationmetonymic extensionmetaphorical extensionarbitrary extension
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本論文旨在以認知的觀點探討國語的六個基本顏色詞 (即黑、白、紅、黃、綠/青、藍/青)之語意延伸用法。 本研究提出一個語意延伸的架構,將六個基本顏色詞語的語料分成兩大類:具體類/感知類 (the concrete/perception-based type)及抽象類/概念類 (the abstract/conceptualization-based type)。 而抽象類又可再細分成三個次類:轉喻延伸 (metonymic extension),隱喻延伸 (metaphorical extension) 及任意延伸 (arbitrary extension)。 經轉喻而得到抽象概念的顏色詞語大多有感知基礎 (perception bases),經隱喻而得到抽象概念的顏色詞語大多有屬性基礎 (property bases)。 有些顏色詞語似乎沒有根據地延伸出抽象意義,因此被歸類在任意延伸這一次類。 依循這個語意延伸架構,我們可以合理地解釋大部分表示抽象概念的顏色詞語。 在分析並討論每個基本顏色詞如何產生抽象意義後,有五點值得探討:第一,本研究發現顏色詞語之間有兩種關係:對立關係 (opposition)及合作關係 (coordination)。 第二,本研究之語料支持Derrig (1978)的論點,即在Berlin & Kay (1969)所發現的顏色詞發展順序(implicational order)中,較早發展的顏色詞比較晚發展的顏色詞有較豐富的隱喻延伸用法。 換句話說,黑、白、紅的隱喻延伸用法較黃、綠、藍豐富。 第三,雖然本研究的語意延伸架構中沒有包括「隱喻及轉喻的交互作用」(interaction of metaphor and metonymy),但是從語料分析中可以觀察到有些例子不是單純的隱喻或轉喻,而是兩者的混合。 第四,要決定一個顏色詞語是否為「任意延伸」是非常主觀的,因為這涉及到說話者是否知道此顏色詞語的來源。 最後,本研究之語料觀察到跨語言性 (cross-linguistic)及語言獨特性 (language-specific)兩個現象並存於國語顏色詞語的延伸用法中。
This thesis aims to investigate the six basic color terms in Mandarin, i.e., hei “BLACK”, bai “WHITE”, hong “RED”, huang “YELLOW”, lu/qing “GREEN”, and lan/qing “BLUE”, with a cognitive view so as to account for how color terms are used to indicate abstract concepts. Among the Chinese six basic colors, qing can be used to represent both GREEN and BLUE because it is an archaic term for GREEN and BLUE yet with productive usage up to the present. According to my proposed model for the semantic extension of the six basic color words in Mandarin, all the data can be divided into two main types: the concrete/perception-based type (Type A) and the abstract/conceptualization-based type (Type B). The abstract type of color words is further analyzed into three subtypes: those that are metonymic extensions (Type B-1), most of which have perception bases, those that are metaphorical extensions (Type B-2), most of which have property bases, and those that are arbitrary extensions (Type B-3), whose bases are unknown. Given this model, most abstract concepts that color words designate can be reasoned out. In addition, five points are discussed after the analysis of the six basic color words. First, two semantic relations among the color words are found: opposition and coordination. Second, my data support the claim that colors at the earlier stage in Berlin and Kay’s implicational order (i.e., BLACK, WHITE, and RED) are more productive in creating metaphorical uses than those at the later stage (i.e., YELLOW, GREEN, and BLUE). Third, I acknowledge that the interplay between metaphor and metonymy is observable among the data. Fourth, I point out the subjectivity in determining the category, “arbitrary extension”. Finally, the data I have studied suggest that patterns of the extensional uses of color words in Mandarin can be both cross-linguistic and language-specific.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT……………………………………………………i
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………………………ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………iii
1.INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………1
1.1 Motivation and Purpose of the study……………1
1.2 The Definition of Basic Color Terms……………2
1.3 Scope of the Study……………………………………4
1.4 Data and Methodology…………………………………5
1.5 Organization of the Thesis…………………………7
2. LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………8
2.1 Controversy between Universalism and Relativism in Color Terms……………8
2.1.1 Universalism Concerned with Color Terms……………8
2.1.2 Relativism Concerned with Color Terms………………11
2.1.3 The Co-existing System of Linguistic Universalism and Linguistic Relativism along with “Cognitive Anchors" ………12
2.2 Conceptual Metaphor and Metonymy…………………14
2.2.1 Conceptual Metaphor………………………………………15
2.2.2 Conceptual Metonymy: its similarities with and
differences from metaphor…………………………………17
2.2.3 The Interaction of Metaphor and Metonymy……………19
2.3 Summary…………………………………………………………21
3. A PROPOSED MODEL FOR COLOR WORDS……………………………23
3.1 The Conceptualization of Color Words: from color perception to color conception…….....................24
3.2 The Properties of the Six Basic Color Categories in Mandarin………………................................... 25
3.3 A Model for the Semantic Extensions of the Six Basic Color Words in Mandarin…………………………………………......27
4. THE ANALYSIS OF THE SIX BASIC COLOR WORDS IN
MANDARIN CHINESE.........................................32
4.1 The Semantic Extensions of the Six Basic Color Words……32
4.1.1 Hei (黑 “BLACK”)…………………………………………33
4.1.2 Bai (白 “WHITE”)………………………………………40
4.1.3 Hong (紅 “RED”)…………………………………………49
4.1.4 Huang (黃 “YELLOW")………………………………………58
4.1.5 Lu/Qing (綠/青 “GREEN”)…………………………………66
4.1.6 Lan/Qing (藍/青 “BLUE”)…………………………………71
4.1.7 Qing (青 “GREEN/BLUE/BLACK”)…………………………77
4.1.7.1 Hei/Black as One of the Shades of the Grue Category in Mandarin…..............................................77
4.1.7.2 The Relation among Lu, Lan, Hei and Qing Embraced in the Chinese Grue Category……………………………………78
4.2 General Discussion…………………………………79
4.2.1 Semantic Relations between Color Words…………80
4.2.1.1 Opposition…………………………………………………80
4.2.1.2 Coordination………………………………………………85
4.2.2 The Productivity of Metaphorical Usage for Colors at an Earlier Stage...........................................86
4.2.3 Are Non-arbitrary Extensional Uses of Color Words either Purely Metonymies or Metaphors?…………………………………86
4.2.4 Is Arbitrary Extension Really Arbitrary?………………88
4.2.5 Are Color-word Extensional Uses Cross-linguistically Observable or Language-particular?……………………………89
4.3 Chapter Summary………………………………………………90
5.CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………92
SOURCES OF DATA ………………………………………………………101
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………102
Sources of Data
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