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研究生:蔡易蓉
研究生(外文):Claire Yi-Jung Tsai
論文名稱:文化與英語教學:中學英語教師之看法與教學
論文名稱(外文):Culture and English Teaching: How Do Secondary English Teachers Conceptualize and Instruct Culture?
指導教授:常紹如常紹如引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shau-Ju Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:135
中文關鍵詞:文化教學英語教學中等學校台灣
外文關鍵詞:Culture instructionEnglish teachingsecondary schoolTaiwan
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中文摘要
  這項實證研究旨在調查中學英語教師對文化與英語教學之看法及其教學情形。研究者首先編製一份問卷,其中涵蓋與文化和英語教學相關之諸多議題,並以郵寄方式將問卷發予任教於台北市的158位國中英語教師及125位高中英語教師。其後共回收154份問卷,其中88份來自國中,66份來自高中。研究結果發現大部份的英語教師認為文化在外語教學佔有重要地位,且表示會在課堂上教授文化,但關於文化的教學內容及教學過程仍有不足之處。另外,英語教師在教授文化的過程中也遭遇一些問題,包括教師的文化知識不足、課本及教師手冊的文化內容不盡完備、文化教材及資源尋找不易及授課時間不足,種種問題皆影響英語教師的文化教學。基於這些研究發現,研究者對英語教師、師資培育機構、中學當局、教科書作者及出版社提出多項建議,以期文化與英語教學能逹到更為密切及有效的結合。
ABSTRACT
This empirical study aims at investigating how junior and senior high school English teachers conceptualize and instruct culture in their teaching of English. A questionnaire covering various issues about culture instruction and English teaching was developed by this researcher and distributed to 158 junior high school English teachers and 125 senior high school English teachers in Taipei City via mail. The returned questionnaires numbered 154, including 88 from junior high schools and 66 from senior high schools. The results revealed that culture was generally considered significant in foreign language teaching and was instructed by most of the subjects in their teaching of English. However, inadequacy was unveiled concerning the cultural components included in the teaching and the ways these teachers conducted their culture instruction. Besides, some problems─including the deficiency of teachers’ cultural knowledge, the inadequacy of cultural components in the English textbooks and teacher’s manuals, the difficulty in obtaining cultural materials and resources, and the constraint of instructional time─were found to hinder the teaching of culture. Based on these findings, some suggestions were made not only to English teachers but also to institutions of teacher education, secondary school authorities, textbook writers and publishers with the aim of achieving a more effective and efficient integration of culture and English teaching.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
ABSTRACT ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Research Rationale 4
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4 Significance of This Study 6
1.5 Overview of This Study 6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Definitions of Culture 8
2.2 Culture in Language Classroom 12
2.2.1 Frameworks of cultural goals and suggestions 12
2.2.2 Cultural teaching vehicles and techniques 18
2.2.2.1 Comparison and contrast 18
2.2.2.2 Spiral curriculum 19
2.2.2.3 Strategies pertaining culture instruction and four linguistic skills 19
2.2.2.4 Strategies involving vocabulary and culture instruction 21
2.2.2.5 Use of computer technology 22
2.2.2.6 Use of photos, music, commercials, and sitcoms 24
2.2.3 Cultural assessment 24
2.2.3.1 Why to test culture 24
2.2.3.2 What to test about culture 25
2.2.3.3 How to test culture 26
2.3 Empirical Research on Culture Instruction 27
2.4 Summary 32
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 34
3.1 Subjects 34
3.1.1 Target population 34
3.1.2 Sampling criteria 34
3.1.3 Recruitment procedures 36
3.2 Instrument ………………………………………………………………………..38
3.2.1 Questionnaire construction 38
3.2.2 Format of the questionnaire 39
3.2.3 Content of the questionnaire 40
3.2.4 Questionnaire administration 42
3.3 Data Analysis 43
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT 45
4.1 Demographic Information 45
4.2 English Textbooks 47
4.3 Questions about Culture and Culture Instruction 48
4.3.1 Culture and language learning 48
4.3.2 Classroom instruction 53
4.3.3 Teaching materials 71
4.3.4 Cultural knowledge 82
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION 91
5.1 Discussion of the Findings 91
5.1.1 Teachers’ conceptualization of culture 92
5.1.2 Content and process of culture instruction 94
5.1.2.1 Cultural components instructed in the English classroom 94
5.1.2.2 Pre-instruction: planning 96
5.1.2.3 During-instruction: teaching methods and language use 97
5.1.2.4 Post-instruction: assessment 101
5.1.3 Problems concerning culture instruction 103
5.1.3.1 Deficiency of teachers’ cultural knowledge 104
5.1.3.2 Inadequacy of the cultural elements in the textbooks and teacher’s manuals 106
5.1.3.3 Difficulty in obtaining cultural teaching materials and resources 111
5.1.3.4 Time constraint 112
5.1.4 The impact of background factors on teachers’ cultural awareness and culture instruction 115
5.2 Suggestions for Enhancing Culture Instruction 117
5.2.1 Suggestions to English teachers 117
5.2.2 Suggestions to institutions of teacher education 118
5.2.3 Suggestions to high school authorities 119
5.2.4 Suggestions to textbook writers and publishers 119
5.3 Suggestions for Future Research 120
5.4 Conclusion 121
APPENDIX 126
REFERENCES 131
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 District distribution of the sampled junior high schools 37
Table 4.1 Subjects’ background information 47
Table 4.2 Importance of culture 50
Table 4.3 Possibility of learning a foreign language without learning culture 51
Table 4.4 Importance of the three cultural sources 52
Table 4.5 Frequency of culture teaching 54
Table 4.6 Frequency of teaching overt culture 55
Table 4.7 Frequency of teaching covert culture 56
Table 4.8 Frequency of teaching pragmatic language usages 57
Table 4.9 Frequency of teaching cultural information about vocabulary or phrases 58
Table 4.10 Frequency of teaching the four cultural components 59
Table 4.11 Frequency of planning for culture instruction 59
Table 4.12 Frequency of using English to teach culture 61
Table 4.13 Ways/ methods of teaching culture 62
Table 4.14 Tools or media to teach culture 63
Table 4.15 Use of listening activities along with culture instruction 64
Table 4.16 Use of speaking activities along with culture instruction 64
Table 4.17 Use of reading activities along with culture instruction 65
Table 4.18 Use of writing activities along with culture instruction 66
Table 4.19 Use of the four linguistic activities along with culture instruction 66
Table 4.20 Frequency of assessing culture 67
Table 4.21 Ways of assessing culture 68
Table 4.22 Sufficiency of cultural knowledge imparted to students 69
Table 4.23 Students’ feeling about teaching of culture 69
Table 4.24 Sufficiency of cultural elements in textbooks 72
Table 4.25 Comprehensiveness of English-speaking cultures in textbooks 73
Table 4.26 Appropriateness of English-speaking cultures in textbooks 74
Table 4.27 Comprehensiveness of native cultures in textbooks 75
Table 4.28 Appropriateness of native cultures in textbooks 77
Table 4.29 Wrong or outdated cultural information in the textbooks 77
Table 4.30 Sufficiency of cultural elements in teacher’s manuals 78
Table 4.31 Frequency of using supplementary cultural materials 81
Table 4.32 Sources of supplementary cultural materials 81
Table 4.33 Easiness of obtaining cultural materials 82
Table 4.34 Confidence in teaching culture 83
Table 4.35 Sources of cultural knowledge 85
Table 4.36 Experience of taking cultural courses 86
Table 4.37 Inclusion of cultural courses in teacher training programs 87
Table 4.38 Willingness to take cultural courses as part of further studies 88
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Manifest culture vs. hidden culture 9
Figure 4.1 Reasons for some teachers’ lack of confidence in teaching culture 84
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