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研究生:黃莉琪
研究生(外文):Li-chi Huang
論文名稱:高中英語科實習教師較學計畫歷程:個案研究
論文名稱(外文):The Lesson Planning Processes of EFL Intern Teachers at Senior High Schools: Four Case Studies
指導教授:程玉秀程玉秀引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yuh-show Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:202
中文關鍵詞:英語教學教學計劃師資培育個案研究
外文關鍵詞:English teachingLesson PlanningTeacher educationCase studies
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:5
文獻指出過去教育研究較著重於研究教師外顯行為與學生學習成就之關係,而忽略教師內心思考的歷程。近二十年來,教師思考研究已經成為教育領域的主流。在台灣,近年來也有許多研究者投入這個領域。惟在英語教學領域對於生手教師的思考之研究尚有不足,本研究期以從教師教學計劃歷程的角度切入,探討生手英語教師的思考歷程。本研究經由觀察與晤談方式,旨在探討四位台灣高中英語科實習教師的教學計劃歷程,藉此了解他們是如何根據實習指導教師所指派之教學任務,準備並實施其教學計劃,另外亦探討這些實習教師在備課與實施過程中,受到何種因素的影響。
研究結果以個案方式呈現,發現四個個案的教學計畫受到兩大因素的影響。一為個人的英語學習與教學經驗與信念,另一為環境因素,包括他們的實習學校,實習指導教師及其所指派之教學實習內容,以及學生。其中,這些個案高中所受英語教育與大學所受英語教育之經驗不同,影響他們對英語教學的看法,進而影響到他們的教學計畫與實施。基於研究發現,研究者提出一些對英語教師師資培育的建議,以期未來英語師資培育更能協助準教師做好準備,並持續提供實習教師更良好的學習機會。
關鍵字: 個案研究、教學計劃、英語教學、實習教師、師資培育
For decades, the field of second and foreign language teaching has focused on teachers’ behaviors or the learning outcome they produce. Yet with a recent shift in focus to teacher cognitions that underlie their classroom practice in this field, researchers have begun to explore this emerging terrain from various perspectives such as teachers’ beliefs, decision making, pedagogical content knowledge, and curricular planning (e.g. Woods, 1996). These endeavors have contributed greatly to our understanding of language teaching. However, work on understanding novice language teachers’ thinking, though evolving, is insufficient. In view of this, this study sought to investigate the processes of planning and implementing lessons in which intern teachers of English as a Foreign Language in Taiwan engaged while doing their teaching practice.
By classroom observations and in-depth interviews, this study explored how four interns approached and planned their teaching assignments given by their mentors, how they implemented their plans, and what factors came into play in the process of accomplishing the assignments.
Analysis of the data revealed that these intern teachers’ in-class and pre- or post- class decision making was mainly influenced by two groups of factors and the interaction of the two: (1) the intern teachers’ experiences of and beliefs in English learning and teaching, and (2) contextual factors, including their unique teaching assignments, their students, and their mentors. Among the factors, the intern teachers’ ‘apprenticeship of observation’ in high school and in college and their students’ expectations and in-class responses were especially significant in shaping the interns’ practices.
This study fills in a gap in the current literature on teacher thinking in the field of second language teaching, specifically that in Taiwan. It intends to provide a realistic description of intern teachers’ planning processes, with the complexity inherent in the teaching assignments in mind. Several implications for second language teacher preparation programs are discussed.
Key Words: case studies, lesson planning, English teaching, intern teachers, teacher education
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………i
ABSTRACT.…………………………………………………………………………ii
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………..ix
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
MOTIVATION 1
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 2
Teacher Thinking in General Education 2
Teacher Thinking in the Field of Second Language Teaching 4
Teacher Thinking in Taiwan 5
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 6
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS 7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 9
RESEARCH ON TEACHER PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING 9
The Framework for Research on Teacher Planning and Decision Making 10
Research on Preactive Decisions or Planning 12
Research on Interactive Decisions 16
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING 23
Factors Identified in the Field of General Education 23
Factors Identified in the Field of Second Language Teaching 25
MODELS OF TEACHER PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING 32
CHAPTER THREE METHOD 40
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE EFL TEACHER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM IN TAIWAN 40
PARTICIPANTS AND THEIR SETTINGS 41
DATA COLLECTION 44
Classroom Observations 44
Interviews 46
Formal Interviews 47
Informal Interviews 51
The Resulting Data 52
DATA ANALYSIS 52
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 54
BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF THE FOUR CASES 55
English Learning Experiences 55
Perspectives on the Teacher Education Courses in College 56
Beliefs in Learning and Teaching English 57
Teaching Practice Contexts 60
The Textbooks Used by the Participants 62
JANE’S CASE 64
Teaching Assignment 64
Ground Plan for the Teaching Assignment 65
Getting Familiar With the Textbook Content 66
Time Mapping and Lesson Plan in a Note Form 67
Weighing and Selecting Teaching Contents for Classroom Instruction 68
Sequencing the Selected Teaching Contents 69
Transforming the Selected Units 71
Planning for Vocabulary Teaching 71
Planning for Teaching Reading 74
Planning for Teaching Grammar Focus, Language Use, and Conversation 76
Modifications of Plans While Planning 77
Actual Classroom Practice 79
Modifications of Plans in the Classroom 80
Summary 83
ROB’S CASE 85
Teaching Assignment 85
A Framework of Planning 85
Time Mapping 86
Planning on a Daily Base 87
Weighting and Selection 88
Sequence of the Selected Units 90
Integration of the Schedule and the Sequence 91
Transformation of the Selected Content 93
Actual Classroom Practice 99
Daily Routines 100
Strategies for Presentation 100
Use of English or Mandarin 101
Modifications of Plans in the Classroom 102
Summary 104
CHARLOTTE’S CASE 105
Teaching Assignment 105
Personal Characteristics in Planning 106
A Preset Model in Planning 107
Use of English As the Language of Instruction 108
Strategies for Motivating Students’ Learning 109
Routines for Classroom Procedures 110
Transformation of the Content in Each Lesson Assigned 112
Modifications of Plans While Planning 120
Actual Classroom Practice 122
Teaching Techniques and Strategies From the Mentor 122
Modifications of the Plans in the Classroom 123
Summary 124
SHERRY’S CASE 126
Teaching Assignment 126
Routines in Planning and Enactment Processes 127
Routines Established at the Outset 128
Change in Teaching Focus 130
Sequence of the Selected Teaching Content 132
Getting Familiar with the Content 136
Transformation of the Teaching Content 137
Transforming the Conversation 138
Transforming the Magazine Content 143
Actual Classroom Practice 143
Use of Mandarin as the Language of Instruction 144
Modification of Plans in the Classroom 144
Summary 148
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION 150
NATURE OF PLANNING AND ENACTMENT PROCESSES 150
Two Levels of Planning 150
Global Planning 151
Local Planning 153
Forms of Planning 155
Routines, Planning Styles, and Actual Classroom Practice 157
Routines in Planning and Implementation 157
Personal Planning Styles 159
Actual Classroom Practice 159
INFLUENCES ON PLANNING AND ENACTMENT OF PLANS 162
The Role of Experiences and Beliefs 162
Apprenticeship of Observation 163
Beliefs in Learning and Teaching English 167
Contextual Factors 172
Teaching Assignments 173
Students 176
Mentor 180
Other Context Factors 183
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 184
CONCLUSIONS 184
IMPLICATIONS 186
Suggestions for Future Research 191
REFERENCES 194
APPENDICES 202
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