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研究生:謝小鳳
研究生(外文):Siew-fung Sia
論文名稱:從社會語言學觀探討馬來西亞英語之本土化
論文名稱(外文):The nativization of Malaysian English: A sociolinguistic approach
指導教授:施玉惠施玉惠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-hwei Shih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:本土化馬來西亞英語社會語言學
外文關鍵詞:NativizationMalaysian EnglishSociolinguistics
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根據學者Kachru (1981)的說法,由早期英國殖民所帶進亞洲與非洲的英語,早已對當地多元文化與多種語言的環境做出調適,並且逐漸發展成各種新興英語,有別於其來源─英式英語。Krchru (1981) 所描述的這種現象就是近年來在學術界經常被探討的英語本土化現象。作為一個後殖民國家,馬來西亞的英語發展也出現了這種現象,但與其他國家不同的是馬來西亞於1950至1970年間實施了一連串的語言政策。這些語言政策不僅使英語喪失了官方語言的地位,也使馬來語取代了英語在教育上媒介語的角色。自此以後,英語便只成為馬來西亞教育上必修的第二語言。由於其被使用的領域變少了,一般認為馬來西亞整體的英語水平也隨著下降。儘管如此,因著其所附帶的實際利益以及既有的社會地位,英語在馬來西亞的重要性仍然不減。
綜上所述,本研究旨在探討馬來西亞英語的語言特色、功能以及當地人對本土化英語的態度。藉由語料蒐集以及問卷調查,本研究較重要的發現有三項。第一、受到當地語言、文化和社會環境的影響,馬來西亞英語的確具有一些有別於正統英語的語言特色。第二、儘管在馬來西亞語言政策的實施下,英語已經喪失了官方語以及教育媒介語的地位,當地人還是在日常生活中大量使用英語。第三、當地人傾向於贊成在非正式的場合中使用馬來西亞英語。根據問卷調查顯示,馬來西亞英語代表著一種可拉近距離的族群認同。
基於多元種族、文化、社會環境以及語言交流的因素,馬來西亞英語的本土化是一種趨勢。因此,當正統英語仍保有其在國際間以及正式場合中的領導地位,本土化的英語早已在馬來西亞根深蒂固。這種本土英語所展現的不僅是本土風味,還具有凝聚族群的功能。未來的研究可針對各種形式的馬來西亞英語作調查,例如各種形式的語言特色,另外也可比較在馬來西亞,正統英語與馬來西亞英語的地位、功能和使用領域。
According to Kachru (1981), the English language in Asia and Africa, introduced through earlier colonization by the British, has long adjusted itself to the multilingual and multicultural contexts there, and has gradually developed as new varieties of English distinct from its original norm (e.g. British English). The phenomenon Kachru (1981) describes is recommended as nativization of English, which has been a subject much studied in recent years. Being a post-colonial country, Malaysia is no exception to this kind of development of English. Something, however, is unique to the country─the language policies implemented there. From the late 1950s to the early 1970s, a series of language policies were adopted in Malaysia. According to the language policies, Malay was promoted as the national and official language, but on the other hand, English was removed from the official language and the medium of instruction in education. Since then, English has become a compulsory second language in education. Used in fewer domains, the general proficiency in English is said to have been declining in Malaysia. Still, the importance of English is never reduced because of its utilitarian advantages and its high social status.
Given this unusual background, Malaysian English is investigated on its linguistic, functional and attitudinal aspects in this study. With the collected linguistic data and the questionnaire survey in Kuching, a city of Malaysia, several major findings are yielded. First, certain linguistic features are found distinctive to Malaysian English, which not only reflect the influence of local languages, but are also used to cater for socio-cultural contexts. Second, although the Malaysian language policies withdrew the official role of English, and also it’s dominant role in education, English is still frequently used by Malaysians in their daily life, as shown in this study. Third, Malaysians tend to have a positive attitude toward Malaysian English, but they prefer using the variety in more informal situations. Many comments from the informants suggest that a sense of in-group identity is attached to Malaysian English. Using this variety can thus foster an intimacy among people.
Considering the language contact and socio-cultural contexts in a multiethnic society, the nativization of English is a trend in Malaysia. Therefore, while Standard English still firmly keeps its international and formal status, Malaysian English has already long rooted in Malaysian soil. Such a local variety of English not only reveals local flavor, but also serves to improve ethnic solidarity and intimacy. For further research, it is worth exploring the linguistic features of various sub-varieties of Malaysian English. Another direction for future investigation is the respective status, functions and domains of Standard English and different sub-varieties of Malaysian English.
ABSTRACT I
中文摘要 III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES VI
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 HISTORY OF ENGLISH IN MALAYSIA 1
1.1.1 Early colonial period 3
1.1.2 Middle colonial period 3
1.1.3 Post-colonial period 4
1.2 PURPOSES OF THE STUDY 7
1.3 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS 7
CHAPTER TWO THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY 9
2.2 TWO DIMENSIONS OF BILINGUALISM 11
2.3 NATIVIZATION OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 14
2.3.1 A general review on the issue of nativized English 15
2.3.2 Previous studies on the nativization of English 21
2.3.3 Earlier studies on Malaysian English 25
2.4 TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF LANGUAGE PLANNING 30
2.4.1 Language planning in Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines 32
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 35
3.1 LINGUISTIC DATA 35
3.1.1 Data analysis 36
3.2 QUESTIONNAIRE DATA 37
3.2.1 Design of the questionnaire 37
3.2.2 Data analysis 40
3.2.2.1 Treatment of questionnaire data 40
3.2.2.2.Treatment of social variables 41
3.2.2.3 Treatment of attitudinal factors 45
3.2.3 Observation of the researcher 46
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND FINDINGS 48
4.1 FINDINGS OF THE LINGUISTIC DATA 48
4.2 GENERAL FINDINGS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA 53
4.2.1 Acceptability of Malaysian English 53
4.2.2 Frequency of use of Malaysian English 57
4.2.3 Domains of English in Malaysia 60
4.2.4 Language attitudes 63
4.2.5 Learning motivations 65
4.3 FINDINGS BASED ON SOCIAL AND ATTITUDINAL VARIABLES 66
4.3.1 Gender 66
4.3.2 Age 67
4.3.3 Socioeconomic status─occupation and education level 70
4.3.4 Medium of education 72
4.3.5 Proficiency in English 74
4.3.6 Attitudinal factors 75
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION 77
5.1 LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF MALAYSIAN ENGLISH 77
5.1.1 Syntax 78
5.1.2 Semantics 85
5.1.3 Code-mixing 87
5.1.4 Culture 90
5.1.5 Phonology 90
5.1.6 A sociolinguistic approach for Malaysian English 93
5.2 ACCEPTABILITY AND USE-FREQUENCY OF MALAYSIAN ENGLISH 97
5.3 MOTIVATIONS FOR LEARNING ENGLISH AND DOMAINS OF ENGLISH IN MALAYSIA 99
5.4 ATTITUDINAL ASPECTS OF MALAYSIAN ENGLISH 101
5.5 THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF MALAYSIAN ENGLISH 103
5.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF SOCIAL VARIABLES ON THE USE OF MALAYSIAN ENGLISH 103
5.6.1 Significance of age 104
5.6.2 Significance of medium of education 105
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION 107
6.1 SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR FINDINGS 108
6.2 PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 112
6.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE PRESENT STUDY AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 114
APPENDIX I 116
APPENDIX II 120
APPENDIX III 123
APPENDIX IV 125
APPENDIX V 126
BIBLIOGRAPHY 129
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