跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.210.21.70) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/15 08:18
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:李佳霖
研究生(外文):Charlene Chia-lin Lee
論文名稱:漢語失語症患者的雙字複合詞處理歷程
論文名稱(外文):Processing of Disyllabic Compounds in Chinese Aphasia
指導教授:謝國平謝國平引用關係洪蘭洪蘭引用關係
指導教授(外文):John Kwock-ping TseDaisy L. Hung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:漢語失語症雙字複合詞詞彙處理歷程選擇性詞彙缺失
外文關鍵詞:ChineseAphasiaDisyllabic compoundlexical processingcategorical specific deficit
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:407
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:92
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
選擇性詞彙缺失一直是失語症研究中受到矚目的一個議題。文獻報告指出不同類型的失語症患者對於名詞和動詞會有不同的表現:在一般口語以及圖片命名作業中,非流利型和失文法型的病人相對於名詞而言傾向於省略動詞,而流利型的病人,特別是Wernicke’s病人以及忘名症的病人(Anomic aphasia),則會有相反的表現。
由於之前的研究重點多將焦點擺在印歐語系的語言上,我們目前對於漢語失語症患者在這方面的表現還是有限。有鑑於此,本研究欲藉由探討漢語失語症患者的雙字複合詞處理歷程,而對於名詞/動詞選擇性缺失的這個議題有更進一步的認識。
本研究包含了兩個子實驗─圖片命名作業以及詞類判斷作業。我們操弄了複合詞的詞性以及複合詞內部的構詞結構。 這樣子的操弄使我們可以同時看到病人在整字層次以及次詞彙層次的表現。
本研究欲回答的問題有
(1) 名詞/動詞選擇性缺失是否只出現在口語表達的情況下?
(2) 名詞/動詞選擇性缺失是否也同樣存在於次詞彙的層次?
(3) 參考Levelt’s 的詞彙處理模式, 這樣的現象應該是屬於哪一層次的詞彙缺失?
我們的資料顯示名詞/動詞選擇性缺失,即非流利型病人的動詞缺失以及流利型病人的名詞缺失,同時存在於口語表達以及語言理解的情況。此外,我們在次詞彙層次中並沒有發現名詞/動詞選擇性缺失。相反的,我們發現病人還保有對於整體構詞結構的概念。
基於這些結果,我們建議名詞/動詞選擇性缺失應該是屬於語意(而非詞類)上的缺陷。此外,我們的資料顯示: 複合詞的構詞結構越典型(如),病人的表現就越好,表示詞素的排列組合必然是心理詞彙的規範之一。這個現象也許跟構詞結構的內隱學習有關。未來後續研究可從雙字複合詞的語意透明度或鄰項數目大小切入。
Category specific naming deficits have been closely attended to in studies of aphasia. It has been reported that main verbs and object names can be selectively dropped in different types of aphasics. Nonfluent and agrammatic aphasic patients tend to produce far fewer verbs than nouns in connected speech, while fluent patients, particularly Wernicke’s aphasics and Anomics, demonstrate the opposite pattern. Similar phenomena have also been demonstrated in naming-to-confrontation tasks.
Due to skewed research emphasis on certain languages, particularly English, our knowledge concerning this issue is still too limited. In view of this, this study takes advantage of the specialty of Mandarin Chinese by exploring the processing of disyllabic compound words by Mandarin aphasia. With this investigation, we hope we can open another window on the NOUN/VERB issue.
The present study comprises two experiments. One uses a picture confrontation naming task and the other a linguistic category judgment task. By manipulating the morphological structure of the target compound words, we analyzed participants’ word processing at the whole word as well as the sub-lexical level.
Three questions were addressed in this study:
(1)Does the NOUN/VERB double dissociation occur in production tests only?
(2) Does a similar phenomenon also exist at the ‘sub-lexical’ level?
(3) Based on Levelt’s lexical production model, where may the possible functional locus of the deficit be?
Our data indicate that NOUN/VERB lexical impairments are not exclusive to production tests, but occur in both perception and production tasks. This became apparent when we increased task requirements, causing the deficit in question to appear in the comprehension tests, too.
In addition, we did not find the breakdown of NOUN/VERB lexical retrieval penetrating into the sub-lexical level. On the contrary, the global morphological structure seems to be relatively preserved in those the aphasic participants in our study.
Based on the above two findings and the structural features of our target words in relation to Levelt’s (1999) model of lexical retrieval, we suggest that the selective lexical deficit may be located at the semantic/conceptual level.
In addition to the above findings, our research reveals another interesting aspect of lexical retrieval. Our data shows that the more typical the compounds are, the better the participants performed, indicating that morphology─the patterns of morpheme composition─must be listed in the mental lexicon. This phenomenon may be related to implicit learning of morphological structure, and future studies could focus on the neighborhood size effect of different compound words.
Table of contents
Acknowledgment
Abstract
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 ‘NOUNS AND ‘VERBS’ DOUBLE DISSOCIATION 6
2.2 HYPOTHESES AND ACCOUNTS 7
2.2.1 Grammatical Accounts 7
2.2.2 Semantic-conceptual Accounts 10
2.2.3 Lexical Account 14
2.2.4 Lexical model approach 15
2.3 PREVIOUS RESEARCH IN CHINESE 16
2.3.1 Bates et al (1991) 16
2.3.2 Xu (1990) 19
2.3.3 Chen & Bates (1998) 20
2.4 LEVELT’ MODEL ON SPEECH PRODUCTION 22
2.4 INTERIM SUMMARY 29
CHAPTER III. EXPERIMENT 1. PICTURE CONFRONTATION NAMING TASK 30
3.1 INTRODUCTION 30
3.2 METHOD 31
3.2.1 Participant 31
3.2.2 Material 33
3.2.3 Design and Procedure 34
3.2.4 Scoring 35
3.3 RESULT 37
3.3.1 Lexically correctness for object naming and action naming 37
3.3.2 Lexical correctness for the compound types of nouns and verbs 38
3.3.3 Grammatical correctness for object naming and action naming 40
3.3.4 Grammatical correctness for the compound types of nouns and verbs 41
3.4 INTERIM SUMMARY 42
CHAPTER IV. EXPERIMENT 2. LINGUISTIC CATEGORY JUDGMENT TASK 44
4.1 INTRODUCTION 44
4.2 METHOD 45
4.2.1 Participant 45
4.2.2 Material 45
4.2.3 Design and Procedure 48
4.3 RESULT 49
4.3.1 Noun judgment vs. verb judgment 49
4.3.2 Compound types of nouns and verbs 50
4.4 INTERIM SUMMARY 52
CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 53
5.1 WHOLE WORD LEVEL 53
5.2 SUB-LEXICAL LEVEL 56
5.3 MORPHOLOGICAL COMPETENCE 59
5.4 POSSIBLE LOCUS IN THE FUNCTIONAL LEVEL OF MENTAL LEXICON 59
5.5 RETHINKING MENTAL LEXICON─THE ROLE OF MORPHOLOGY 61
5.5.1 Implicit learning of linguistic structure 62
5.5.2 Neighborhood size effect 63
5.6 IMPLICATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 64
5.6.1 Gesture and language 64
5.6.2 Lexical access in isolated situation vs. in connected speech 64
5.6.3 Same vs. different reasons for the selective lexical deficits in two types of aphasia 65
5.6.4 Meta-linguistic knowledge vs. linguistic competence 66
REFERENCE 67
APPENDICES 72
INDEX OF TABLES
TABLE 1. PERSONAL INFORMATION OF THE THREE SUBJECT GROUPS IN EXPERIMENT 1 32
TABLE 2. COMPOUND TYPES AND EXAMPLES IN CATEGORY JUDGMENT TASK 34
TABLE 3. THE NUMBERS OF ITEMS FOR EACH COMPOUND TYPE IN OBJECTS AND ACTIONS 34
TABLE 4. PERSONAL INFORMATION OF THE THREE SUBJECT GROUPS IN EXPERIMENT 2 45
TABLE 5. COMPOUND TYPES AND EXAMPLES IN CATEGORY JUDGMENT TASK 46
TABLE 6. THE PERCENTAGE OF THE COMPOUND WORDS BEING TREATED AS A NOUN OR A VERB 47
INDEX OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1. LEVELT’S THEORY OF SPEECH PRODUCTION IN OUTLINE 25
FIGURE 2. FRAGMENT OF THE LEXICAL NETWORK UNDERLYING LEXICAL ACCESS 27
FIGURE 3. PERCENTAGE FOR LEXICAL CORRECTNESSOF OBJECT NAMING VS. ACTION NAMING OF THREE SUBJECT GROUPS 37
FIGURE 4. (LEFT) PERCENTAGE FOR LEXICAL CORRECTNESS ON OBJECT NAMING OF THREE SUBJECT GROUPS 39
FIGURE 5. (RIGHT) PERCENTAGE FOR LEXICAL CORRECTNESS ON ACTION-NAMING OF THREE SUBJECT GROUPS 39
FIGURE 6. PERCENTAGE FOR GRAMMATICAL CORRECTNESS OF OBJECT VS. ACTION NAMING OF THREE SUBJECT GROUPS 40
FIGURE 7. (LEFT) PERCENTAGE FOR LEXICAL CORRECTNESS ON OBJECT NAMING OF THREE SUBJECT GROUPS 41
FIGURE 8.(RIGHT) PERCENTAGE FOR LEXICAL CORRECTNESS ON ACTION-NAMING OF THREE SUBJECT GROUPS 41
FIGURE 9. CORRECT PERCENTAGE FOR NOUN JUDGMENT VS. VERB JUDGMENT OF PATIENT GROUPS 49
FIGURE 10. (LEFT) CORRECT PERCENTAGE FOR COMPOUND TYPES FOR NOUN JUDGMENT BY THE TWO APHASIC GROUPS 51
FIGURE 11. (RIGHT) CORRECT PERCENTAGE FOR COMPOUND TYPES FOR VERB JUDGMENT BY THE TWO APHASIC GROUPS 51
INDEX OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1. SUBJECT INFORMATION. 66
APPENDIX 2. WORD STIMULI FOR CATEGORY JUDGMENT TASK. 66
APPENDIX 3. WORD STIMULI FOR PICTURE-CONFRONTATION NAMING TASK. 66
中文詞知識庫小組 (1994,三月). 中文書面語頻率辭典 (新聞語料詞頻統計) 中央研究院技術報告 No.94-01. 台北,南港,中央研究院
中文詞知識庫小組 (1995,6月). 注音檢索現代漢語字頻表 (Mandarin Chinese Character Frequency List Based on National Phonetic Alphabets) 中央研究院技術報告 No.95-01. 台北,南港,中央研究院
Andrews, S. (1997). The effect of orthographic similarity on lexical retrieval: Resolving neighborhood conflicts. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4(4), 439-461.
Badecker, W., Miozzo, M. & Zanuttini, R. (1995) The two-stage model of lexical retrieval: Evidence from a case of anomia with selective preservation of grammatical gender. Cognition 57: 193-216.
Basso, A., Razzano, C., Faglioni, P., & Zanobio, E. (1990). Confrontation naming, picture description and action naming in aphasic patients. Aphasiology, 4, 185-95.
Bates, E., Chen S., Tzeng, O., Li, P., & Opie, M. (1991). The Noun-Verb problem in Chinese aphasia. Brain and Language, 41,203-233.
Baxter, D. & Warrington, E. K. (1985). Neuropsychologia, 23, 653-666.
Berndt, R.S., Haendiges, A. N., Mitchum, C.C. & Sandson, J. (1997). Verb retrieval in aphasia─2: relationship to sentence processing. Brain and Language, 56,107-37.
Berndt, R. & Zingeser, L. (1991). Grammatical class effects in word production: finding the locus of the deficit. Brain and Language, 41, 597-600.Berndt, R. S., Mitchum, C. C., Haendiges, A. N., & Sandson, J. (1997). Verb retrieval in aphasia─1: characterizing single word impairments. Brain and Language, 56,107-37.
Berndt, R. S. Haendiges, A. N., Burton, M. W., & Mitchum, C. C. (2002). Grammatical class and imageability in aphasic word production: their effects are independent. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 15, 353-371.
Bird, H., Howard, D., & Franklin, S. (2000). Why is a verb like an inanimate object? Grammatical category and semantic category deficits. Brain and Language, 72,246-309.
Bock, J.K., Dell, G.S., Griffin, Z., Chang, F., & Ferreira, V.S. (1996). Structural priing as iplicit learning. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago, IL.
Breedin, S. D. Saffran, E. M., & Coslett, H. B. (1994). Reversal of the concreteness effect in a patient with semantic dementia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 11, 617-60.
Caramazza, A. & Hillis, A. (1991). Lexical organization of nouns ad verbs in the brain. Nature, 349, 788-790.
Chang, F., Griffin, Z.M., Dell, G.S., & Bock, L. (1997, Aug.) Modeling structural priming as implicit learning. Presented at Computational Psycholinguistics, Berkeley, CA.
Chao, Y.R. (1968) A grammar of spoken Chinese. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Chen, S., & Bates, E. (1998). The dissociation between nouns and verbs in Broca''s and Wernicke''s aphasics: Evidence from Chinese. Special issue on Chinese aphasia, Aphasiology, 12(1), 5-36.
Dell, G.S., Schwartz, M. F., Martin, N., Saffran, E. M., & Gagnon, D. A. (1997) Lexical access in aphasic and non-aphasic speech Psychoogical Review, 104, 801—837.
Dell, G.S., Chang, F. and Griffin, Z.M. (1999) Connectionist Models of Language Production: Lexical Access and Gramatical Encoding. Cognitive Science, 23 (4), 517-542.
DeRenzi, E., & Pellegrino, G. (1995). “Spacing of verbs preserved, but ineffectual reading in a patient with impaired word production.” Cortex, 31, 619-36.
Dick, F., Bates, E., Wulfeck, B., Utman, J., & Dronkers, N. (in press) Language Deficits, Localization, and Grammar: Evidence for a Distributive Model of Language Breakdown in Aphasics and Normals. Psychological Review.
Everaert, M , van der Linden, E-J., Schenk. A. & Schreuder, R., ed. (1995). Idioms: Structural and psychological perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Garrett, Merrill F. (1988). Processes in Language Production, in Newmeyer (ed.). 69-96
Henaff Gonon, M.A, Bruckert, R. & Michel, F. (1989) Lexicalization in an anomic patient. Neuropsychologia 27: 391-407.
Hillis, A. E., & Caramazza, A. (1995). Representation of grammatical categories of words in the brain. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 7, 396-407.
Hsu, Jean Ching-Fen. (1998). Syntactic Effects at Sublexical Level of Word Recognition in Chinese. MA thesis: National Tsing Hua University.
Jescheniak, J.-D. (1994) Word frequency effects in speech production. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Nijmegen University.
Kohn, S. E., Lorch, M. P., & Pearson, D. M. (1989). Verb finding in aphasia. Cortex, 25, 57-69.
Lapointe, J. S. (1985). A theory of verb form use in the speech of agrammatic aphasics. Brain and Language, 24, 100-155.Levelt, W.J.M. (1989). Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge. MA: MIT Press.
Levelt, W.J.M. (1992). Accessing words in speech production. Cognition 42, 1-22. Reprinted in Levelt (ed.) (1993). 1-22
Levelt, W.J.M.(ed.)(1993). Lexical Access in Speech Production. Cambridge. MA: Blackwell.
Levelt, W.J.M. (1999) “Models of Word Production” 2Trends in Cognitive Sciences — Vol. 3, No. 6, June 1999
Levelt, W.J.M., Roelofs, A., & Meyer, A.S. (1999). “A theory of lexical access in speech production.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences,. Available at http://www.bbsonline.org/documents/a/00/00/05/26/bbs00000526-00/bbs.levelt.html
Lee, C-Y., Tzeng, O., Hung, D., Fuh, J.L., & Wang, S.J. (1998). Object and Action Naming In Two Types of Chinese Brain Damaged Patients: Alzheimer''s disease and frontal lesion. Poster session presented at the Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Theoretical Issues and Cognitive Neuroscience Research of the Chinese Language, University of Hong Kong.
Li, Charles N. and Sandra Thompson. 1981. Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar. University of California Press.
Lu, C.C., Bates, E., Hung, D., Tzeng, O., Hsu, J., Tsai, C.H. and Roe, K. (2000). Syntactic Priming of Nouns and Verbs in Chinese. Technical Report CND-0001 for project in Congitive and Neural Development.
Marshall, J., Pring, T., Chiat, S., & Robson, J. (1996) Calling a salad a federation: An investigation of semantic jargon─Part 1: nouns. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 9, 237-50.
Marshall, J., Chiat, S., Robson, J., & Pring,T. (1996) Calling a salad a federation: An investigation of semantic jargon─Part 2: verbs. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 9, 251-60.
Marslen-Wilson, W. (1989). Access and Integration : Projecting sound onto meaning, in Marslen-Wilson, W. (ed.) (1989b). 3-24
Marslen-Wilson, W. (ed.) (1989b). Lexical Representation and Process. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Matthew Y. Chen and Ovid J. L. Tzeng (eds.). (1994) In honor of William S-Y. Wang : interdisciplinary studies on language and language change. Taipei, Taiwan, ROC: Pyramid,
McCarthy, R., & Warrington, E. K. (1985) Category specificity in an agrammatic patient: the relative impairment of verb retrieval and comprehension. Neuropsychologia, 23, 709-27.
Myerson, R.,& Goodglass, H. (1972). Transformational grammars of three agrammatic patiens. Language and Speech, 15,40-50.
Miceli, G., Silveri, M.C., Villa, G., & Caramazza, A. (1984) On the basis for the agrammatic’s difficulty in producing main verbs. Cortex, 20,207-40.
Miceli, G., Silveri, M. C., Nocentini, U. and Caramazza, (1988) A. Patterns of dissociations in comprehension and production of nouns and verbs. Aphasiology 2, 351-358.
Osman-Sagi, J. (1987, August). “Action naming in Hungarian aphasic patients” in Abstracts of the Second World Congress of Neuroscience IBRO. [Neuroscience, Supplement Vol. 22, pp. 5509]
Petersen, S.,Posner, M., Fox, P., Mintun, M. and Raichle, M. (1988). Position emission tomographic studies of the cortical anatomy of single-word processing. Nature, 331, 585-589.
Plaut, D.C., McClelland, J.L., Seidenberg, M. S., & Patterson, K. (1996). Understanding normal and impaired word reading: Compoutational principles in quasi-regular domains. Psychological Review, 103, 56-115.
Roelofs, A. (1997) The WEAVER model of word—form encoding in speech production. Cognition 64, 249—284
Rapp, B, & Caramazza, A. (1998). A case of selective difficulty in writing verbs. Neurocase, 4, 127-40.
Saffran, E. M., Schwartz, M. F., & Marin, O. (1980). Evidence from aphasia: Isolating the components of a production model. In B. Butterworth (Ed.), Language production: Speech and talk, New York: Academic Press.
Schriefers, H. (1993) Syntactic processes in the production of noun phrases. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Language, Memory and Cognition 19: 841-850.
Shapiro, L., Zurif, E., & Grimshaw, J. (1987). Sentence processing and the mental representation of verbs. Cognition, , 219-246.
Shapiro, L.P. and Levine, B.A. (1990). Verb processing during sentence comprehension in aphasia. Brain and Language 38.21-47.
Shapiro, K., Shelton, J., & Caramazza, A. (2000). Grammatical class in lexical production and morphological processing: evidence from a case of fluent aphasia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 17, 665-82.
Taft and Zhu (1997)
Tai, J. H-Y. (1997). Category Shifts and Word-Formation Redundancy Rules in Chinese. 中國境內語言暨語言學, 3, 435-468.
Tang, T. C. (1994) On the Relaiton between Word-Syntax and Sentence-Syntax: A Case Study in Chinese Compound Verbs. in Chen, Matthew Y & Tzeng, Ovid J.L (eds) In honor of William S-Y. Wang : interdisciplinary studies on language and language change
Vigliocco, G., Antonini, T. & Garrett, M.F. (1997) Grammatical gender is on the tip of Italian tongues. Psychological Science 8: 314-317.
Williams, S. E., & Canter, G. J. (1987) action naming performance in four syndromes of aphasia. Brain and Language, 32, 124-36.
Xu, W. (1990). Approaching the mental lexicon from evidence of Chinese aphasia.. MA thesis: National Tsing Hua University.
Yiu, E., Worrall, L. and Baglioni, T. (1998). Classification of aphasic Chinese speakers: cluster and discriminant function analyses. Aphasiology, 12(1), 37-48.
Zingeser, L. B. and Berndt, R. S.(1990) Retrieval of nouns and verbs in agrammatism and anomia. Brain and Language 39,14-32.
Zingeser, L. B. and Berndt, R. S. (1988). Grammatical class and context effects in a case of pure anomia. Cognitive Neuropsychology. 5, 473-516.
Zingeser, L. (1989, October). Noun/verb production in agrammatic and anomic aphasia. Academy of Aphasia, Santa Fe, NM.
Zhou, Xiaolin, and Marslen-Wilson, W. (1994). Words Morphemes ….in the Chinese Mental Lexicon. Language and Cognitive Processes 9. 39
Zhou, Xiaolin, and Marslen-Wilson, W. (1995). Morphological Structure in the Mental Lexicon. Language and Cognitive Processes 10, 545-600
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top