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研究生:鍾風雅
研究生(外文):Feng Ya Zhung
論文名稱:中文「看」,「聽」,「聞」的語意研究
論文名稱(外文):A Semantic Study of Mandarin Perception Verbs Kan, Ting and Wen
指導教授:李臻儀李臻儀引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jen I Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:語意學
外文關鍵詞:SemanticsPerception verbs
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這篇論文是在研討中文感官動詞「看」、「聽」、「聞」的語意延伸,及相關的語意現象。 第一個目的是要詳細研究「看」、「聽」、「聞」的語意延伸。 其次是探討「看」、「聽」、「聞」的語法化過程及「看」、「聽」、「聞」自身體範疇至認知範疇的隱喻延伸。
研討的重心是「看」、「聽」、「聞」的語意延伸,及相關的語意現象。 根據我的分析,語意延伸的機制是隱喻和換喻。 討論相關的語意現象的立足點是首先假設當代的現象 (此處指的是語意延伸) 不僅可以反映當代的現象,譬如隱喻延伸,也可以反映斷代的現象,譬如語意變化和語法化現象。 再來是單向假設是一項合理的理論,可以使我們勾勒出「看」、「聽」、「聞」在語法化過程中的發展。
分析的結果顯示「看」、「聽」、「聞」的語意延伸可以被分成三類:身體的、混合的、認知的。 所有的語意延伸都是源自隱喻和換喻或彼此的交互作用。 在語法化方面,「看」、「聽」、「聞」與單向假設密切地相關。 既然單向假設的特徵是某語意單位會經歷語意延伸及抽象化,「看」、「聽」、「聞」應該也會經歷這種現象。分析的結果顯示「看」、「聽」、「聞」確實經歷語意延伸及抽象化。 至於隱喻延伸, 「看」、「聽」、「聞」 透過Sweetser的心靈如同身體的隱喻 (MIND-AS-BODY metaphor) 自身體範疇延伸至認知範疇。

This thesis is a study on the meaning extension of Mandarin Chinese perception verbs, kan ‘see’, ting ‘hear’ and wen ‘smell’, and the relevant linguistic phenomena. The purposes are, first, to investigate the meaning extension, then, to explore the process of grammaticalization, and the metaphorical mapping of kan, ting and wen from the physical domain to the mental domain.
The focus of this study is on meaning extension of kan, ting and wen and the relevant phenomena to meaning extension. Based on my analysis, the mechanisms of meaning extension are found to be metaphor and metonymy and the discussion of the relevant phenomena to meaning extension is based on the two basic assumptions. The first is that the analysis of the synchronic phenomenon, herein meaning extension, can reflect the diachronic variation such as semantic shift, grammaticalization as well as the synchronic phenomenon of the metaphorical mapping. The second is that the hypothesis of unidirectionality is a valid theory, which enables us to sketch the developmental processes of grammaticalization of kan, ting and wen.
The results of the analysis reveal that meaning extensions of kan, ting and wen are classified into three categories such as physical, mingle and mental ones, all of which are derived out of the interaction of metaphor and metonymy. In the dimension of grammaticalization, kan, ting and wen are significantly associated with the hypothesis of unidirectionality. Since unidirectionality characterizes a lexical item in terms of meaning extension and abstraction, kan, ting and wen are expected to undergo such phenomena. The result of the analysis does show that kan, ting and wen undergo meaning extension and abstraction. With regard to metaphorical mapping, kan, ting and wen are mapped from the physical domain to the mental domain through Sweetser’s (1990) MIND-AS-BODY metaphor.

List of Abbreviations………………. ………………. ……………………………...iii
Chapter I. Introduction……….…………………………………………………….. 1
Chapter II. Literature Review and Analysis of Framework
2.1 The Relationship between Meaning Extension and Grammaticalization…………5
2.2 The Hypothesis of Unidirectionality………………………………………………7
2.3 The Mechanisms of Grammaticalization………………………………………...10
2.3.1 Metaphorical Mapping……………………………………………………11
2.3.2 Metonymy………………………………………………………………...13
2.3.3 Comparison and Interaction between Metaphor and Metonymy…………14
2.4 A Study Providing Background of Analysis: Perception Verbs and MIND-AS-BODY Metaphor …………………………………….…………………………………15
2.5 Analysis Framework……………………………………………………………..17
Chapter III. Meaning Extension of Kan
3.1 The Meaning Extension of Kan………………………………………………….19
3.1.1 Analysis of Meaning Extension of Kan………………. …………………19
3.1.1.1 Physical Kan………………. ………………. …………………….20
3.1.1.2 Mingled Kan………………. ………………. …………………….20
3.1.1.3 Mental Kan………………. ………………. ……………………...36
3.1.2 Summary ………………. ……………………. …………………………46
3.2 Syntactic Status of Kan………………. ………………. ………………………..47
3.2.1 Previous Studies on Kan as a Grammatical Marker………………………47
3.2.2 Analysis of the Syntactic Category of Kan……………………………….51
3.2.2.1 Particle Kan………………. ………………. ……………………..51
3.2.2.2 Modal Adverb Kan………………. ………………. ……………...53
3.2.2.3 Complementizer Kan………………. ……………………………..67
3.2.2.4 Discourse Marker Kan………………. ……………………………70
3.3 Summary and Discussion……….……………. ……………………………76
Chapter IV. Meaning Extension of Ting and Wen
4.1 The Meaning Extension of Ting………………. ………………. ……………….79
4.1.1 Physical Ting………………. ………………. …………………………...79
4.1.2 Mingled Ting………………. ………………. …………………………...81
4.1.3 Mental Ting………………. ………………. …………………………….83
4.2 The Meaning Extension of Wen………………. ………………. ……………….84
4.2.1 Physical Wen………………. ………………. ……………………………85
4.2.2 Mingled Wen………………. ………………. ……………………………85
4.2.3 Mental Wen………………. ………………. ……………………………..86
4.3 Summary on 4.1 and 4.2………………. ………………………………………..88
4.4 Semantic Shift of Wen………………. ………………. …………………………89
4.4.1 Analysis of Semantic Shift of Wen………………. ………………………90
4.4.1.1 Previous Studies on the Etymology of Wen……………………….90
4.4.1.2 Semantic Shift of Wen from Hearing to Smelling…………………94
4.4.2 Summary and Discussion of 4.4………………. …………………………98
4.5 Summary and Discussion ………………. ………………. ……………………..98
Chapter V. Discussion and Conclusions
5.1 Discussion………………. ……………………………………………………..101
5.1.1 Inspection of MIND-AS-BODY Metaphor Based on the Chinese Data…101
5.2 Conclusions……………………………………………………………………..104
5.2.1 Summary of the Study………………. ………………. ………………...104
5.2.2 Limitations and Suggestions…………………………………………….105
References………………………………………………………………………….107

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