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研究生:梁彩玲
研究生(外文):Tsailing Liang
論文名稱:合作學習在國中英語教學之實施及成效
論文名稱(外文):IMPLEMENTING COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN EFL TEACHING: PROCESS AND EFFECTS
指導教授:施玉惠施玉惠引用關係陳秋蘭陳秋蘭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-hwei ShihChiou-lan Chern
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:203
中文關鍵詞:合作學習溝通式教學法九年一貫課程
外文關鍵詞:COOPERATIVE LEARNINGcommunicative language teachingnine-year joint curriculum
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本論文結合了合作學習、第二語言習得、與外語教學之理論,對國中英語教學進行實證研究。其目的在探討合作學習對於國中生之語言學習、學習動機、以及常態編班下高成就與低成就學生之學習成效。本研究係以準實驗之設計,以台灣中部地區一所鄉下國中的兩班國中一年級學生,總共七十人為研究對象。一班為實驗組,另一班為對照組,並採取前測後測之實驗方法。資料之收集包括兩次對話式之口試、三次月考之成績、動機問卷之調查、學生訪談、以及老師之深度訪談。研究期間,實驗組進行合作學習之教學法,而對照組則是傳統式教學法。為避免教師對合作學習之教學法不熟悉而影響研究結果,本文作者特於本研究開始之前兩年,赴該校為任教於該校之十二位英語教師進行為期近兩年之教師在職進修,提供深度且長期之合作學習工作坊,並於工作坊結束後,挑選成績優異之教師進行合作學習之實證研究。
本研究結果顯示,實驗組於語言及非語言層面之溝通能力以及學習之動機,均以顯著之成績優於對照組。而高成就與低成就之學生,在合作學習之薰陶下,亦可各自發揮所長,除了獨善其身之外,還可兼善天下,也幫助同學成長學習。在語言表現以及學習動機方面,均以顯著之成績優於對照組中之高成就與低成就之學生。據此結果,合作學習值得在台灣這一波教改浪潮中,尤其是在九年一貫課程推動之際,受到更大的重視與推廣。
This study brings together the fields of cooperative learning, second language acquisition, as well as second/foreign language teaching to create optimal schooling experiences for junior high school students. Integrating cooperative learning with the theories from the second language acquisition, i.e. the comprehensible input, the comprehensible output, the interaction and context, and the affective domain of motivation, the researcher hopes that this empirical study can provide a close link between cooperative learning and the communicative language teaching and, at the same time, propose guidelines for EFL teachers who wish to implement cooperative learning to enhance their students’ proficiency in English as well as motivation toward learning English.
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on EFL junior high school learners’ language learning, motivation toward learning English as a foreign language, and the high- and low-achievers’ academic achievements in a heterogeneous language proficiency group. A pretest-posttest group research design was used. The sample population was from two classes of the first year junior high school students in a rural town in central Taiwan. There were totally 70 students involved in this study. The experimental group was taught in cooperative learning for one semester with the methods of Three-Step-Interview, Learning Together, Talk Pair, Inside-Outside Circle, and Student-Teams-Achievement Division. The control group was taught in the traditional method of Grammar Translation with some of the Audio-Lingual approach.
This study collected data from two oral tasks, scores of monthly examinations, motivational questionnaires, student interview, and teacher interview to achieve methodological triangulation. The statistical tools of the Independent Samples Test and Paired Samples Test were used to determine whether there were significant inter- and intra-group differences. The results of the study showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group significantly (p < .05) in the measurement of oral communicative competence and the motivational questionnaire. The results of the students’ scores on the school monthly examination showed that the academic achievements of the experimental group were comparable to those of the control group.
The major findings of this study suggested that cooperative learning helped significantly to enhance the junior high school learners’ oral communicative competence and their motivation toward learning English. Based upon the conclusions drawn from the study, cooperative learning was thus recommended to be integrated into the junior high school English instruction as part of the Nine-Year Joint Curriculum, the current wave of education reform in Taiwan. Pedagogical implications for the application of cooperative learning in EFL teaching, especially suggestions for teacher development in cooperative learning, were proposed. Finally, suggestions for future research were recommended.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i
ABSTRACT iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES xi
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Problems of EFL Teaching in Taiwan 2
1.2 Purposes of the Study 4
1.3 Perspectives of the Study 5
1.4 Definition of Terms 6
1.4.1 Oral Communicative Competence 6
1.4.2 Cooperative Learning 6
1.4.3 Traditional Teaching 7
1.4.4 Nine-Year Joint Curriculum 7
1.4.5 High/Low Achievers 7
1.5 Organization of the Dissertation 7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 8
2.1 Communicative Approach Revisited in Education Reform 8
2.1.1 Development of Communicative Competence 9
2.1.1.2 Hymes’ Contribution to Communicative Language Teaching 9
2.1.1.3 Canale & Swain’s Model 10
2.1.1.4 Savignon’s Definition 11
2.1.2 Pedagogical Implications of Communicative Approach 12
2.1.2.1 Appropriateness vs. grammaticality 12
2.1.2.2 Fluency vs. accuracy 14
2.1.2.3 Active participation vs. passive reception 16
2.1.3 Communicative Language Teaching and Cooperative Learning 16
2.1.4 Cooperative Learning vs. Group Learning 17
2.1.5 Learning Pyramid 18
2.2 Cooperative Learning and Language Acquisition 20
2.2.1 Input 21
2.2.2 Output 22
2.2.3 Context 24
2.3 Theories Underlying Cooperative Learning 26
2.3.1 The Vygotskian Perspective 26
2.3.2 The Piagetian Perspective 27
2.3.3 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory 28
2.3.4 Constructivism 29
2.4 Elements of Cooperative Learning 30
2.4.1 Positive Interdependence 31
2.4.2 Individual Accountability 32
2.4.3 Quality of Group Interaction Process 33
2.4.4 Teaching Interpersonal and Small Group Skills 33
2.4.5 Teaching of the Social Skills 34
2.5 Cooperative Learning Methods 35
2.5.1 Three-Step Interview 36
2.5.2 Inside-Outside Circle 36
2.5.3 Learning Together 37
2.5.4 Student-Team Achievement Division 38
2.6 Limitations of Cooperative Learning 40
2.7 Research Findings on Cooperative Learning in EFL Teaching in Taiwan 42
2.7.1 Language Development 42
2.7.2 Social Development 44
2.7.3 Affective Development 45
2.8 Rationale of the Present Study 47
2.8.1 Teacher Development 47
2.8.2 Communicative Competence 48
2.8.2.1 Verbal Features of Communicative Competence 49
2.8.2.2 Non-verbal Features of Communicative Competence 51
2.8.3 Motivation 53
2.8.4 High vs. Low Achievers 54
2.9 Conclusion 54
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 55
3.1 Selection of Participants 55
3.1.1 Selection of Teacher 55
3.1.2 Selection of Students 58
3.2 Instructional Design 59
3.2.1 Control Group 60
3.2.1.1 Vocabulary 60
3.2.1.2 Dialogue 60
3.2.1.3 Sentence structure 60
3.2.2 Experimental Group 61
3.2.2.1 Teambuilding 63
3.2.2.2 Role Assignments 65
3.2.2.3 Positive Reinforcement 67
3.2.2.4 Learning Together (LT) 68
3.2.2.5 Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) 71
3.2.2.6 Vocabulary 74
3.2.2.7 Dialogue 76
3.2.2.8 Sentence Structure 77
3.3 Data Collection 77
3.3.1 Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire 78
3.3.2 Oral Tasks 78
3.3.3 Motivational Questionnaire 80
3.3.4 Teacher Interview 81
3.3.5 Student Interview 82
3.3.6 School-Wide Monthly Examinations 82
3.4 Data Analysis 83
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND FINDINGS 85
4.1 Effects of Cooperative Learning and Language Learning 85
4.1.1 Linguistic Competence 86
4.1.2 Discourse Competence 89
4.1.2.1 Cohesion markers 90
4.1.2.2 Length of pause 94
4.1.3 Strategic Competence 95
4.1.3.1 Reactions to partners’ silence 96
4.1.3.2 Reactions to one’s own silence 97
4.1.4 Non-verbal Communicative Competence 99
4.1.5 Results of the Monthly Achievement Tests 100
4.1.6 Results of Rater Interview 101
4.1.6.1 Non-verbal oral communicative competence 101
4.1.6.2 Strategic competence 103
4.2 Effects of Cooperative Learning and Motivation 105
4.2.1 Results of Motivational Questionnaire 105
4.2.2 Results of Teacher Interview on Students’ Motivation 106
4.2.3 Ms. Lee’s Reflections 107
4.3 Effects of Cooperative Learning on High/Low Achievers 109
4.3.1 Results of Three Monthly Examinations 110
4.3.2 Results of Oral Task 111
4.3.3 Ms. Lee’ Reflection 114
4.3.4 Results of Student Interview 115
4.5 Summary of the Results 121
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS 123
5.1 Effects of Cooperative Learning and Language Learning 124
5.2 Effects of Cooperative Learning and Student Motivation 134
5.3 Effects of Cooperative Learning on High/Low Achievers 141
5.4 Proposed Guidelines for Implementing Cooperative Learning 146
5.4.1 Phase One: Teambuilding 147
5.4.2 Phase Two: Group Presentations 149
5.5 Conclusions 151
5.6 Pedagogical Implications 156
5.7 Limitations and Suggestions 160
References 163
Appendix A: Teacher Training in Cooperative Learning 179
Appendix B: Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire 181
Appendix C: Mountain Climbing Chart 184
Appendix D: Interactive Worksheet of Dialogue with Cartoons 185
Appendix E: Scoring Rubric and Actual Scoring sheet of Oral Task 186
Appendix F: Motivational Questionnaire 188
Appendix G: Questions for Semi-structured Teacher Interview 190
Appendix H: Questions for Semi-Structured Student Interview 191
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