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研究生:吳美玲
研究生(外文):Wu Mei-ling
論文名稱:兒歌在幼兒音樂課中的觀察與分析研究
論文名稱(外文):The Research of Kids ’Songs in the Children Music Class- Observations and Analysis
指導教授:方銘健方銘健引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:音樂研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:音樂學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:Kids ’Songs
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:142
  • 點閱點閱:5352
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:1195
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:18
  本研究採觀察分析及文獻分析法,以高市兩所幼稚園為對象,取大班及中班各一班,來進行觀察,每週四天,一天觀察一個班,每次45分鐘左右。實地觀察幼兒音樂課中,兒歌部份進行的情形,並加以記錄及分析。
  本研究的目的有三:一、了解幼兒發展階段相關理論與兒歌學習的關聯性。二、探究兒歌的學習與音樂能力發展理論的相關性。三、研究近代兒童教學法對兒歌學習的影嚮。由觀察分析中,得到研究結果如下:
  本研究4∼6歲的幼兒正值認知發展階段的前運思期(Preoperational Stage),及形象表徵期(Iconic Representation Stage),由觀察分析中發現,此時期幼兒僅能集中注意一部份,無法分散注意力顧到事件各細節,幼兒能經由自創的形象符號或使用自己的言辭來描述所聽到的音樂。因此教師若能瞭解幼兒所處的認知階段,就能設計並選擇適合的教學方式,使教學更具成效。例如在教材方面要儘量單純化,儘量以視覺符號、圖卡來體會音量、音色等的對比。
  此時期幼兒,語言及理解力快速地發展,他們學習用心像與語言來替代感覺運動,將已完成或將做的事表達出來。由觀察發現,幼兒由兒歌歌詞中學到「認字」,而且也學到很多知識如動物、植物、自然等。英文歌曲、台語兒歌及故事串連字卡的教學符合文獻,四∼六歲幼兒受同儕影響並可以使幼兒具備會讀、會認本國或外國文字能力的語文發展特徵。老師們常說故事鼓勵幼兒表演,激發其想像力或以身體表現花開、蠕動的虫、風、雨等;並在教室中都佈置小號的家具如臥室、書房等,以上這些活動都符合瑪莉(M.Mary,1990)所提文獻,幼兒語言發展特徵及建議活動。
  觀察中教師們藉由兒歌歌詞內容進行情境教學,引導日常常規及德育,符合伊莉莎白( B.H.Elizabeth,1964)所提文獻,幼兒在日常生活中吸收經驗,最後變成習慣,這是幼兒適應生活的方式。藉由團體活動或將兒歌用各種不同語調、情緒表達出來,可使幼兒情緒得到有效的轉移與發洩,符合張春興等人所提幼兒社會與情緒發展的特徵與教學。
  觀察發現,當有些幼兒製造出與情境、歌詞有關的動作或戲劇性聲音時,其他幼兒就會模仿,幼兒間的互動,會助長即興的創作。老師們用很多方式來激發幼兒的創作力、想像力如設計律動活動、兒歌遊戲,使幼兒肢體及情緒能抒展符合雪莉(S.Shelly,1981)所提文獻增強幼兒創造力的要素,老師在很多時刻,必須是參與者、觀察者或音樂家。
  律動是兒歌進行中,幼兒最喜歡的活動之一,觀察發現幼兒藉由不斷重覆已知動作及發現、模仿新重作,使動作更加熟練;4∼6歲幼兒上下跳躍得很好,不論跳或快跑都能把身體控制得很好,以上都符合文獻所提(表2-4-3);另外研究發現幼兒還可藉由律動學到輪唱、2指子及3拍子的不同,及數的運算能力。
  口語化的節奏唱名,在兩個幼稚園普遍使用效果很好。觀察中發現幼兒不只會讀唱二分、四分音符,連十六分音符也讀唱的很好,比文獻中發展順序快(表2-4-7)。另外老師也常使用接方方式讓幼兒分組練習節奏型拍打,或排節奏卡讓幼兒辨識音符。
  樂器使用上可發現老師們會依幼兒興趣,給予更多自由探索的機會,而且採機會教育不是慣性地在節奏旋律上教學。幼兒能打規則性長的節奏型,敲打木
琴必須要有手眼協調能力,以上符合文獻所提(表2-4-8);但木琴、直笛、木魚的使用較文獻所提早,在5、6歲即使用(表2-4-8)。
  兒歌遊戲中,可印證幼兒喜歡做有規則可循的歌曲和遊戲,促使群性及分享
經驗增加(表2-4-1);而且幼兒和其他孩童玩得很愉快,對於群體活動很有興趣,欲罷不能,符合文獻(表2-4-10)。
  樂句曲式的概念,雖在研究上顯示較晚發展但觀察發現,經過老師的引導,幼兒可透由視覺、描繪、身體律動,容易取得的物品如嚮板及幼兒間的對唱,遂漸建立樂句、問答句的初步概念,可見幼兒是深具潛力的。
  經過正確的指導,幼兒大都能唱出完整或大部份主要的歌詞,唱歌時全曲粗具調性,能配合歌曲轉換表情。觀察發現,同齡的幼兒,無論在歌唱能力、音樂、節奏、創造及表現能力上都有很大的個別差異但若與他人一起唱時,音高與節奏就更能正確配合,符合文獻所提(表2-4-1)。
  利用律動、說白、歌唱、戲劇等重組聽覺、視學經驗激起強烈自我表現慾望,是達克羅士(E.J-Dalcroze 1865∼1950)教學法的主要理念,其並深深影響了高大宜(Z.Kodaly,1882~1967)及奧福(C.Orff,1895~1982)教學法,由觀察及許多實例中可發現老師們已將教學法的理念、目標、教學方法設計在其教學中。
  最後對未來後續研究提出三點建議。
Abstract
This study adopts an observational approach, taking as subjects the young children in two kindergartens in Kaohsiung. Specifically, music classes in the two educational settings are observed 45 minutes a day, four days a week, over a period of two semesters. The teaching and learning of kids songs is then recorded for further analysis.
The purposes of this study are: (1) to understand the relevance of related theories on the children’s developmental stages to the learning of nursery songs. (2) To explore the relevance of kids songs learning to the developmental theories of musical abilities. (3) To study contemporary teaching methods for children and their implications on the learning of kids songs.
Based on the observations in this study, several findings are derived as follows:
According to the cognitive development theories proposed J. Piaget and J. Bruner, the young children at age of 4 to 6 years in this study are on the Preoperational Stage and the Iconic Representation Stage. They tend to concentrate on one perceptual feature of an experience instead of the whole. And they describe what they hear by organizing their own musical ideas and communicating them through icons of their own invention. It is thus recommended that teachers have awareness of young children’s levels of development and choose age-appropriate experience to ensure successful music teaching and learning. For instance, simplified materials with icons or graphics are preferred to help young children appreciate the contrast of volumes and tone colors.
Children at these stages are characterized by the rapid development of language and perception. They learn to substitute symbols─mental images and language─for the sensorimotor activities of infancy to express what they have done or what they will do. Besides, they learn to “identify words” in the learning of nursery songs and they acquire some knowledge of animals, plants and nature in the process. Under the influence of their peers, children aged 4 to 6 exhibit some of the characteristics of language development, such as reading words from their native language or foreign languages. Creative activities suggested by Mary (M. Mary, 1990) are also found in this study. For instance, teachers in the music classes observed often tell stories to encourage young children to perform, to stretch their imagination and to express various movements with the help of body language. Besides, the classroom for music teaching and learning is always furnished in the same manner as a bedroom or a study.
Teachers conduct situational teaching based on the content of nursery songs to nurture self-discipline and moral character in young children, which is consistent with Elizabeth’s findings that children acquire experience in their daily life and turn them into habits, a way to adapt themselves to the real world (B.H. Elizabeth, 1964). Moreover, having young children work in groups or interpret nursery songs with different intonations or emotions will enable the children to effectively open up and share their feelings and reactions, which echoes in support the characteristics of children’s social development and emotional growth as proposed by Chang et al.
It is also observed in this study that when some young children make certain movements or dramatic sounds related to the situations or words of nursery songs, other children in the same class will imitate. This interaction between children fosters their improvisation. On the other hand, teachers also employ a good number of activities, e.g. eurhythmic activities or musical games, to stimulate children’s creativity as well as imagination, and then the children learn to relieve themselves both mentally and physically. This finding confirms the key elements for creativity proposed by Shelly (S. Shelly, 1981), which suggest that most of the times teachers for music teaching need to be the participants, observers or musicians.
Of all the musical activities, rhythmic activities are an all-time favorite for young children. It is found in this study that young children improve their rhythmic movements by repeating known movements and imitating new movements. Young children aged 4 to 6 years control their body movement fairly well, be it jumping or running. This finding echoes in support prior literature as listed in Table 2-4-3. Moreover, young children can also learn from rhythmic activities the ability to do rondo, to tell the difference between duple and triple, and to do simple calculation of numbers.
Rhythmic syllables is well practiced in both of the two kindergartens. It is observed that young children can perform and read not only half and quarter note rhythm but also sixteenth note rhythm. The finding shows that children learn faster than suggested in the literature. Moreover, teachers often have the children work in groups to practice rhythmic clapping and patting, or they teach the children to read musical notation by putting in order the rhythmic cards.
As for the use of musical instruments, teachers in this study offer opportunities for young children to find their own interests instead of focusing on the rigid teaching of rhythm. It is found consistent with literature that young children at these stages are able to clap long rhythmic patterns and they need eye-hand coordination to play the xylophone. The use of xylophones, recorders, and wood blocks, however, is introduced earlier than suggested in literature at the age of 5 or 6 (Table 2-4-8).
It is confirmed in this study that young children prefer songs with clear patterns and musical games with rules, which contributes to better teamwork and a substantial increase of experience sharing (Table 2-4-1). Besides, young children enjoy other children and want to be with them. They are also interested in group activities and group play (Table 2-4-10).
The concepts of phrase and form are developed later as suggested by literature. It is found in this study, however, that under the guidance of music instructors, young children acquire basic concepts of phrases as well as question and answer of songs with the help of drawings, body movements, castanets, and rondo. Evidently young children possess great potential in the development of musicality.
With appropriate instructions, children can sing most, if not all, of the words of a given nursery song. When they sing, their facial expressions change in the meantime. It is also found in this study that children of the same age exhibit striking differences in terms of their singing skills, musical as well as rhythmic abilities, creativity and performance. Yet when they sing together, they coordinate their pitches and rhythm with others more accurately (Table 2-4-1).
It is a core concept of Dalcroze’s approach to music instruction by taking advantage of eurhythmics, or rhythmic movements, narration, singing and plays to integrate young children’s visual and auditory experiences and to unleash their desire to express and to perform (E.J-Dalcroze, 1865-1950). This very concept bears strong influence on the underlying philosophy of Zoltan Kodaly (Z. Kodaly, 882-1967) and Carl Orff (C. Orff, 1895-1982). The observations in this study as well as real life examples clearly show that teachers have incorporated the concepts, the goals, and the instructional strategies of music education in their curriculum.
Lastly, suggestions are made for further studies in the future.
目 錄
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機……………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的……………………………………………2
第三節 研究問題的敘述……………………………………2
第四節 研究方法……………………………………………2
第五節 研究範圍……………………………………………2
第六節 名詞解釋……………………………………………3
第二章 理論基礎與文獻探討
第一節 兒歌的意義…………………………………………4
第二節 兒歌的分類…………………………………………7
第三節 幼兒發展階段相關理論……………………………9
第四節 幼兒音樂能力發展相關理論………………………18
第五節 近代兒童音樂教學法之基本理念…………………34
第三章 研究方法與步驟
第一節 研究設計……………………………………………48
第二節 研究對象……………………………………………50
第三節 研究過程……………………………………………51
第四節 資料分析……………………………………………52
第四章 兒歌音樂部分之觀察與分析
第一節 律動…………………………………………………54
第二節 節奏…………………………………………………60
第三節 樂器…………………………………………………63
第四節 兒歌遊戲……………………………………………68
第五節 樂句、曲式…………………………………………69
第五章 兒歌歌詞部分之觀察與分析
第一節 兒歌歌詞的分類……………………………………71
第二節 兒歌歌詞的教育價值………………………………83
第三節 創造力的啟發…………………………………….87
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論……………………………………………….89
第二節 建議……………………………………………….96
參考書目
中文部分………………………………………………………97
英文部分………………………………………………………102
附錄
兩個幼稚園的教學理念
台語兒歌
參考書目
中文部份
一、書籍
卜拉絲姬著。王文科譯。兒童的認知發展導論。台北:文景出版社,民國78年。
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小谷隆真著。阮惠芬譯。創意性肢體活動:創新的身體表現遊戲。台北:皮亞傑出版社,民國82年。
王文科著。認知發展理論與教育:皮亞傑理論的應用。台北:五南圖書出版公司,民國80年。
方銘健著。藝術、音樂情感與意義。台北:全音樂譜出版社,民國86年。
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劉慈惠、王莉玲、林青青合譯,Warren R.Bentzen著。幼兒行為觀察與記錄。台北:五南圖書出版公司,民國82年。
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謝政忠編著。幼兒音樂教材教法研究。台南:前程出版社,民國77年。
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二、期刊
江明修著。社會科學多重典範的爭辯:試論質與量研究方法的整合。政治大學學報,第64期,民國80年。
李德淋著。讓小朋友輕鬆愉快的學音樂。國教之友,第40卷第4期,民國78年。
林朱彥著。由創造思考教育看近代兒童教育思潮之發展。台南師院學報,第26期,民國82年6月。
林朝陽著。奧福教學法簡介。國教輔導,第34卷第6期,民國84年。
林朝陽著。著名音樂教學法─高大宜教學法。國教輔導,第35卷第6期,民國85年。
陳淑文著。談奧福與高大宜教學。國教世紀,第24卷第2期,民國77年。
張志仁著。奧福與高大宜音樂教學法之比較研究。傳習,第14期,民國85年。
張蕙慧著。兒童音樂教育與心理學關係析論。新竹師院學報,第八期,民國84年。
黃俊媚著。達克羅士節奏教學法淺釋。國教月刊,第41期,民國83年。
劉英淑著。從高大宜教學法談唱歌。研習資訊,第57期,民國79年。
劉英淑著。高大宜教學法的理念。研習資訊,第57期,民國79年。
劉英淑著。達克羅茲教學法之律動教學理念及教學方法。研習資訊,第13卷第4期,民國85年。
劉英淑著。達克羅茲音感訓練之理念與教學方法。研習資訊,第14卷第2期,民國83年。
劉英淑譯,Choksy講。高大宜教學法課程編排與教學方法。研習資訊,第57期,民國79年。
蕭奕燦著。中國語言在音樂上的應用,嘉義師院學報,第9期,民國84年。
謝鴻鳴著。音程在複拍子中的即興演唱練習。鴻鳴─達克羅士節奏教學月刊,第一卷第12期,民國84年。
謝鴻鳴著。達克羅士節奏教學法簡介。鴻鳴─達克羅士教學月刊,第一卷第一期,民國83年。
三、教材
Beall, P. C. and Susan H. N著。趙玉華譯。童謠與手指謠。台北:東西出版社事業有限公司,民國89年。
孫婉玲等編譯。咱來講台語。台北:親親文化事業有限公司,民國89年。
張清榮審訂。歡樂兒童。台南:世一文化事業股份有限公司,民國89年。
張湘君著。英文童謠創意教學。台北:東西出版社事業有限公司,民國88年。
鄭方靖著。幼兒歌唱與遊戲(一上)。台北:奧福教育出版社,民國79年。
鄭方靖編著。幼兒歌唱與遊戲(一下)。台北:奧福教育出版社,民國79年。
鄭方靖著。高大宜音樂教學總論與實例。台北:仁仁音樂教學中心,民國79年。
鄭方靖著。高大宜音樂教學譜例。台北:仁仁音樂教學中心,民國79年。
施福珍作曲。台灣囝仔歌的故事1。台北:自立晚報出版吳氏總經銷,民國85年。
施福珍作曲。台灣囝仔歌的故事2。台北:自立晚報出版吳氏總經銷,民國85年。
劉美蓮著。台灣兒歌與民謠之旅。台北:台北音樂教育學會,民國84年。
謝明芳編。西瓜屋。高雄:愛智圖書有限公司,民國89年。
四、論文
吳世玲著。生活經驗在兒童音樂概念上的理解應用。國立台灣師範音樂研究所碩士論文,民國89年。
吳宜婷著。台灣當代兒歌研究(1945-1995)。文化大學中國文學研究所碩士論文,民國84年。
李珮玫著。奧福教學法於台灣運用現況之研究。國立台灣師範大學音樂研究所碩士論文,民國82年。
陳欣希著。交響樂之美:社會互動過程中兒童之社會發展。輔仁大學應用心理學系碩士論文,民國87年。
張子華著。柯大宜教學法於節奏唱名及手號應用於國中音樂教學之研究。國立台灣師範大學音樂研究碩士論文,民國85年。
曾瑞媛著。桃竹苗客家童謠之研究。國立台灣師範大學音樂研究所碩士論文,民國82年。
黃麗卿著。創造性音樂遊戲與傳統音樂教學活動中幼兒創造行為表現之差異比較。國立台灣師範大學家政教育研究所碩士論文,民國85年。
楊世華著。奧福與高大宜教學法於音樂行為與創造行為比較之研究─二個小團體之觀察。國立台灣師範大學音樂研究碩士論文,民國82年。
蔡蕙娟著。奧福與高大宜教學之應用研究。國立台灣師範大學音樂研究所碩士論文,民國75年。
羅雅琦著。幼兒遊戲中音樂經驗之觀察與分析研究。國立台灣師範大學音樂研究所碩士論文,民國82年。
簡上仁著。台灣福佬系民歌的淵源及發展研究。國立台灣師範大學音樂研究所碩士論文,民國79年。
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(二) Articals
Bashkoff, Rutn. Lesson Planning the kodaly Way, Music Educators Journal, 78(2), 30-34, 1991.
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