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研究生:李榮生
論文名稱:台北市不同社經背景家庭飲食健康與消費型態研究
指導教授:盧立卿盧立卿引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:家政教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:低收入戶家庭飲食消費外食家庭社經地位質性研究
外文關鍵詞:low-income familyfamily food consumptioneating-outsocioeconomic statusin-depth qulitative interview
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本研究主要探討台北市不同社經背景一般家庭與低收入戶家庭飲食健康與消費型態。研究採立意取樣,於90年3月至91年3月,在台北市石牌國中招募一般家庭(n=136),並與中正區社會福利服務中心合作,招募低收入戶家庭(n=33),以自行發展的結構式問卷訪談家庭飲食消費,最後有75戶一般家庭與32戶低收入家庭完成問卷,並以質性方法深度訪談5位低收入戶之母親。質性訪談發現,受訪的低收入戶個別差異性大,對健康議題較不重視,且會因為價錢因素考量而減少購買水果、海鮮,雖然在健康方面一般家庭與低收入戶家庭在統計上並沒有顯著差異,但是許多低收入戶家庭的父母或是長輩普遍都具有慢性疾病,並且影響其出去就業的能力。一般而言,低收入戶家庭都曾有家中收入不夠支付家人飲食開銷的憂慮,平均為91次/年。此外,參與本研究之低收入家庭以單親家庭(母親和小孩)佔大多數,共有23戶(72%),這些單親家庭若母親有兼職工作者,則小孩外食的比率明顯增加,針對這部份族群,其飲食營養健康值得關注。除了比較一般及低收入戶家庭之外,研究並以家中父親(或母親)教育程度及職業不同將家庭分成低、中、高社經三類型家庭,在比較社經背景不同家庭飲食消費情況發現,在影響家庭食物消費中,雖然價格因素在二者之間並無不同,但一般家庭比低收入戶家庭較重視食物品質、家人喜好、飲食禁忌、健康因素和節日慶典等原因。食物消費情況則顯示低收入戶和低社經家庭花費在水果和牛奶製品的金額較低,魚類的消費頻率也較低(P<0.05)。研究家庭外食情況時,顯示一般和中、高社經家庭去餐廳、大飯店用餐比率較高(P<0.05),低收入戶和低社經家庭花費金額則明顯低於一般家庭和中高社經家庭。在家庭休閒運動方面看來,一般和中、高社經家庭中親子一起運動的比率較高,運動時間較長。量性研究發現家人BMI會受到家庭飲食消費的影響,利用多變項分析發現,開伙次數與母親BMI呈現顯著正相關(r=0.225),而外食金額和父親BMI呈現顯著正相關(r=0.316),家中購買家畜花費金額則與父親和青少年BMI呈現顯著正相關(r=0.325,0.399),青少女BMI則與家庭使用半成品的次數和花費有顯著正相關(r=0.385,0.261)。目前我國對於低收入戶的福利政策多採金錢補助,應針對低收入戶家庭營養相關問題提供必要的協助,才能有效改善低收入戶的健康狀況。
The main focus of this study is to investigate food consumption patterns and family nutrition status between middle-class and low-income families in Taipei Metropolitan areas. The distribution of sample families participated in the study from March 2001 to March 2002 is listed as the following: middle-class families from Shihpai Junior High School of Taipei (n=136); with cooperation of ChungChein social welfare center office of social workers, registered low-income families in ChungChein area are examined by questionnaire to investigate their food consumption patters (n=33); lastly 75 middle class families and 32 low-income families were included to collect household and individual questionnaires , and with more detailed in-depth qualitative interview with five mothers from low-income families. The results show big differences between each individual low-income family, which seem not to pay much attention to health issue on food consumption. Considering price factor, they tend to purchase fewer amounts of fruit and seafood. Although the statistical analysis does not show difference in health aspects between middle class and low-income families, but it does show that parents or elders of low-income families have higher prevalence on chronic diseases, which may affect their ability to obtain employment. Generally speaking, low-income families usually have concerns about not having enough incomes to support food expenses, averaging 91 times per year. Moreover, most low-come families, 23 out of 32 (72%), participated in the study are single-parent families consisting of only mother and children. For those single-parent families, the percentage of children eating out increase when the mothers have jobs, and the food consumption patterns of these families are worth to pay close attention. Our data indicates family members’ BMI may be affected by family’s food consumption patterns. The results of multivariate correlation analysis show that amounts of eating at home and mother’s BMI present significant positive correlation (r=0.225); amount of money on eating-out and father’s BMI present significant correlation(r=0.316); amount of money on purchasing livestock between father’s BMI and teenage boys’ BMI present high correlation (r=0.325, 0.399); teenage girls’ BMI have high correlation (r=0.385, 0.261) with frequency and money on processed food. By comparing the various social economic backgrounds for family food consumption patterns, we found that among the factors to affect the patterns, price factor does not play major role for the two types of families in the decision of what to purchase. However, middle class families tend to have more emphases on the categories of food quality, personal favors, dietary habits, health concerns, and festival ceremony. Regarding food consumption budget, low-income families spend less amounts of money on fruit and dairy products, and lower frequency on fish products consumption (p<0.05) than middle class families. For the family eating-out, low-income families obviously have fewer budgets on this category. Examining family’s exercise habit, middle class families have high tendency on spending more time with their children exercising together. To summarize in whole, family member’s BMI is highly related to family dietary consumption patterns, price will affect low-income families’ decisions when purchasing food and eating out, but usually they neglect the importance of food quality and health issues. Currently, most of our government’s social benefit policies emphasize on financial support. To better resolve the problem, more assistance should be provided to low-income families on the topic of family nutrition consulting. It may be more effective on health status improvement of low-income families.
目錄
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機
第二節 研究目的
第三節 名詞界定
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 家庭飲食消費與製備
第二節 家庭飲食習俗
第三節 低收入戶家庭社會救助體系
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究設計
第二節 研究對象
第三節 訪視流程
第四節 研究工具
第五節 低收入戶家庭飲食消費習慣質性研究
第六節 研究假設
第七節 統計分析
第四章 研究結果
第一節 一般與低收入戶家庭資料分析
第二節 社經地位不同家庭資料分析
第三節 家庭飲食消費相關性
第四節 社經地位家庭飲食消費對於家中成員BMI的影響
第五節 台北市中正區低收入戶家庭飲食質性研究
第五章 研究討論
第六章 結論
第七章 研究限制與建議
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