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研究生:周桂鈴
研究生(外文):Chou,Kuei-ling
論文名稱:視覺障礙學生就讀普通學校的學習經驗與需求
論文名稱(外文):Learning Experiences and Requirements with Visual Impaired Students in Regular Classes
指導教授:張千惠張千惠引用關係王天苗王天苗引用關係蔡克容蔡克容引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:222
中文關鍵詞:視覺障礙資源服務質性研究
外文關鍵詞:visual impairmentresource servicequalitative research
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本研究以一個國小為例,採用質性研究方法,探討就讀普通學校之視障學生的學習經驗及需求。研究的主要結果如下:
壹、學科學習方面
一、課堂學習:國語科部分,因視障生未有中國文字概念,課堂上與字形相關的教學,對視障生是無意義的。數學、自然、社會點字課本因缺乏可觸摸的圖表,造成視障生概念學習困難。英語科較強調活潑學習,在無額外人員的協助下,視障生常無法參與活動。體育課牽涉許多手眼協調的部分,如何顧及安全又能鍛鍊體能是教師協助的目標。美勞科多以視覺感受為主,造成學習上的限制,應設法轉成觸覺或其他感官知覺方式呈現,視障生即可獲得美的陶冶。
二、教材教具:視障生教材需轉換以聽覺或觸覺方式呈現。因為觸覺所能接收的範圍及精細程度是比視覺差的,所以提供視障學生摸得懂,且不失原教材精神的教材教具,是視障學生學習上需具備的。
三、評量內容與形式:評量部分的需求主要是調整考試方式及評量時間彈性化。在評量方式上採用報讀或摸讀點字卷。報讀可節省評量時間,卻造成學生無法獨立作答;點字卷需提前製作外較為費時。評量時間則視學生作答情形彈性調整。
四、輔具運用部分:學校提供多樣輔具,但在提供前須先評估學生的視覺狀況及生理心理狀況,選擇適合輔具才能真正協助視障生的學習。
五、回家作業部分:視障生無法書寫一般文字,回家作業部分需作調整部分型態,如生字的練習需改成語詞練習形式。由於視障生比明眼學生花費更多時間來作功課,教師允許家長代為書寫文字。作業完成後,家長或教師需把作業轉成一般文字以利教師批閱。
六、特殊課程部分:視障生所需的特殊課程包括定向行動、盲用電腦及點字訓練等。但因學生缺乏空白課程使得特殊課程的安排相當困難,只能利用時機,採機會教育方式進行。
貳、課外活動方面:
在考量課外活動所具有的彈性與隨機性上,人力支援,如口語提示、肢體協助等,以提高視障生課外活動的參與度。
參、人際互動方面:
視障生因無法掌握人際互動上視覺線索的部分,如表情、或因行動上的限制及無法眼見為憑,均影響人際上的互動。為使視障學生具備良好的人際行為,視障生及同儕雙方需學習以口語方式表達感受、視障生與同儕有相同的常規要求、視障生不可以自我為中心、需自我接納、並避免過度依賴。
肆、無障礙環境的營造方面:
造成視障生在學校物理環境上的障礙來自於空間配置、物品放置、同儕活動、聲音干擾、教室距離。
心理環境方面,行政人員相當支持視障教育,並積極進行視障教育宣導。普通班教師及同儕在面對視障學生的需求,有正、負面的態度出現。資源教師在面對視障生龐雜的需求,所仰賴的是經驗的累積、積極的態度、個性上的彈性、及不放棄學生任何學習的可能。家長則全心投入協助視障生學習,面對自己視障孩子在普通學校學習,所持態度包括因害怕孩子被貼標籤而拒絕接受資源服務、對孩子的學業要求是矛盾的,相信在普通學校學習未來適應較佳、相信孩子是可以學得好的。
伍、親師互動方面:
普通班老師、資源老師及家長間互動是透過親師座談、個別化教育計劃(IEP)會議、教材教法討論會、家庭聯絡簿及面對面等方式進行溝通。課程臨時調動、不易尋找溝通的時間、家長配合度不足及班級人數過多等問題,皆影響互動品質。
In this dissertation, we study the experiences and requirements for visual impaired students in regular classes with the approach of qualitative research, and take an elementary school as the model. Our main conclusions are as the following:
I Study on Subjects
I.1 Study in the Classes
Teaching relating to the Chinese characters is meaningless for students with handicaps in vision for they don’t have concepts about the square characters. As to the subjects of mathematics, natural, and social sciences, students with problems in vision encounter study barriers due to the insufficiencies of touchable figures and tables on the point textbooks. Owing to the shortage of assistant teaching staff, students can’t often join the activities in the English classes, though English teaching emphasizes the spontaneous learning. Most subjects in the physical classes focus on the balance of eyes and bodies; therefore, it is important to train students both safely and effectively. Students are limited in studying the subjects of art for most of its categories require the practice of visual function. In order to help students appreciate the subjects of arts, presentations appealing to tactile, as well as other perceptive functions is necessary.
I.2 Textbooks and Teaching Aids
Teaching aids for visual impaired students are usually presented in audio or tactile methods. However, the tactility and receiving ranges are worse than that performed in the vision presentation; it is therefore necessary to provide teaching aids which assist students in tactile ways without compromising the effectiveness of the original teaching aids.
I.3 Contents and Forms of Examinations
There are two main differences in examination: adjusting the methods of examinations and examination time. During the examination, teachers may read the quizzes or quizzes may be presented by the point system. Reading by teachers is time saving but students can’t answer the quizzes alone. Quizzes carried by the point system may take extra time for teachers. As to the examination evaluation time, it could be extended or shortened according to the responses from the students.
I.4 Assistant Tools
There are many assistant tools provided by school; however, the situations of students should be evaluated before choosing proper assistant tools that can really be helpful.
I.5 Homework
Students with handicaps in vision would have difficulty in writing; therefore, some part of the homework has to be rearranged. For example, practices on new Chinese characters may be transformed into practices on phrases. Parents are allowed to write for students, for it takes those students much more time than it takes students who are not visually handicapped to write. After finishing the homework, parents or teachers should transform the homework into normal characters that teachers could read and score.
I.6 Special Courses
Students with troubles in vision need some special courses, such as orientation and mobility, Chinese Braille computer, Braille training, etc. However, these courses are not in the regular curriculum, we can only teach them opportunely.
II Extracurricular
By considering the flexibility and mobility for extracurricular activities, visual impaired students could join more extracurricular activities under the help of teachers who may assist them with sound, tactile means, etc.
III Human Relations
Visual impaired students could not catch the hints, expressions, actions, etc. that are transmitted by vision in human interactions. Those hints effect the human relations. In order to help students build better human relations, students and their schoolmates have to learn how to express themselves orally. Students should live up to normal requirements as their schoolmates do, and should prevent from being over-cling, selfish and not opening their minds.
IV Barrier Free Environment
Physically, the obstacles for visual impaired students come from the arrangements of space, interference of voice, disturbances from adjacent classrooms, etc.
Psychologically, staffs in school should support and advocate educations in vision handicaps. Teachers and classmates in general classes have positive and negative attitudes when facing the requirements of students with troubles in vision. Specialized teachers depend on their experiences, active attitudes, and flexibility in personalities, and never give up the possibility of students, assisting them when it is required. Parents should fully support students in study, and also believe that children can learn better and adopt well in the general school.
V Interactions between Parents and Teachers
Teachers in general and special classes and parents can interact via meeting, individual education program (IEP), face to face discussion, etc. The quality of classes may be affected by incidental shifts in classes, scanty discussions between parents and teachers, insufficient cooperation by parents, over-sized class, etc.
目 次
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景……………………… 1
第二節 研究目的……………………… 7
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 身心障礙學生的學校支持系統 8
第二節 視覺障礙學生的身心特質及教育需求 17
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究設計……………………………… 26
第二節 關於研究現場的描述 28
第三節 研究歷程……………………………… 30
第四節 研究參與者………………………………. 33
第五節 研究者角色的扮演及省思……………… 37
第六節 資料收集…………………………………… 42
第七節 資料整理與分析…………………………… 47
第八節 研究信賴度………………………………… 50
第四章 研究結果
第一節 課程學習…………………………………… 53
第二節 課外活動的學習……………………… 100
第三節 人際上的互動…………………… 115
第四節 無障礙環境的營造……………………… 134
第五節 親師的互動………………………………… 165
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論………………………………………… 180
第二節 建議……………………………………… 195
參考文獻 ………………………………………………… 202
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