# 臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

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 本研究旨在探討國小三年級聽覺障礙學生在一步驟及二步驟文字題的解題歷程，利用Mayer（1992）所提的解題階段分析所得資料。題材為自編之數學測驗，題型包括合併類，改變類及比較類，二步驟題目則是將上述題型擇二加以組合。 研究對象為五位台北縣市三年級啟聰資源班的重度（以上）聽覺障礙學生，其智力正常未伴隨其他障礙，國民小學三年級數學成就測驗在百分等級50以下者，自編前測題答對四題以上，排除無法與研究者溝通的學生，且經家長同意者。利用問題思考法取得受試在文字題的解題資料，再以原案法分析。主要發現如下： 1. 歸納五位受試的解題歷程錯誤有： （1） 問題轉譯： a. 依題意理解困難的整體性來區分─整體語意理解困難及部分語意理解困難。 b. 依題意理解困難的句型來區分─對關係句的理解有困難。 （2） 問題整合：加減法概念不清。 （3） 解題計畫及監控：監控能力差，關鍵字策略。 （4） 解題執行：包括對位錯誤，數錯，忘了將借位後的數值放置答案處。 綜合受試的表現，其主要困難發生在問題轉譯階段。 2. 只有一位受試有加減法概念不清的情形；策略運用的情形和一般兒童沒有差異；計算錯誤並不是受試主要的錯誤類型。 3. 以題目類型來看，五位受試在含有比較類的題目表現最差，而在改變類二步驟題表現最好。 根據上述結果，本研究對數學應用題教學及未來研究提出數點建議。
 The purpose of this study was to explore the problem-solving process of hearing-impaired students to solve one-step and two-step word problems. And the data was analyzed acccording to the four problem-solving stages proposed by Mayer（1992）. The Math Test was designed by the researcher. Semantic stuctures included in the test were combine, change, and compare problems. The two-step problems were made of any two structures of the above. Five hearing-impaired students of third grade were selected from the four elementary schools in Taipei city and county as participants of the research. They were with severe hearing loss , normal intelligence without any other disorders, the rank under 50 % in the Elementary School Math Achivement Test for the third graders, at least four items correct in the pretest, as well as they could communicate with the researcher, and with the permission of the parents. Clinical interviews and protocol methods were employed to understand the problem-solving process of these five participants. The main findings of this study were as follows: 1. The problem-solving process errors discovered were: （1） Translation stage: a. discriminated by the difficulty in comprehension of the problem ─ the comprehension difficulty of the problem as a whole and in parts. b. discriminated by the difficulty in comprehension of the sentence ─ the comprehension difficulty in the relational sentence. （2） Integration stage: misunderstanding of the concept of addition and subtraction. （3） Planning and monitoring stage: worse monitering ability, the usage of the keyword strategy. （4） Excution stage: computation errors. Main difficulties in problem-solving was in the stage of problem translation for the subjects. 2. Only one participant misunderstood the concept of addition and subtraction; the strategies subjects used were alike as that of the hearing children; the computation errors were not the principal errors for the subjects of the research. 3. Five participants did worse in the compare problems, but did better in the change problems. Implications for pratice and further research were recommended on the basis of the finding of this study.
 第一章 緒論 3。 第一節 研究動機及目的 3。 第二節 研究問題 6。 第三節 名詞釋義 7。 第二章 文獻探討 9。 第一節 數學文字題解題相關研究 9。 第二節 聽障學生數學能力分析 26。 第三節 聽障學生語文能力分析 30。 第三章 研究方法 33。 第一節 研究對象 33。 第二節 研究工具 36。 第三節 研究方法 41。 第四節 研究程序 42。 第五節 資料處理與分析 44。 第四章 研究結果與討論 45。 第一節 小安各階段的解題表現 45。 第二節 小齊各階段的解題表現 56。 第三節 小宇各階段的解題表現 68。 第四節 阿愷各階段的解題表現 79。 第五節 小婷各階段的解題表現 91。 第六節 綜合討論 102。 第五章 結論與建議 116。 第一節 結論 116。 第二節 研究限制 122。 第三節 建議 124。