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研究生:黃碧慧
研究生(外文):Bi-Hui Huang
論文名稱:大學生依附風格、愛情關係中之壓力事件困擾與因應策略之關係研究
論文名稱(外文):Attachment Styles, Distress in Love Relationship, and Coping Strategies in College Students
指導教授:蔡順良蔡順良引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shung-Liang Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:教育心理與輔導研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:196
中文關鍵詞:依附風格愛情關係壓力事件壓力事件困擾因應策略大學生
外文關鍵詞:attachment styleromantic love relationshipstressordistresscoping strategycollege student
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  • 被引用被引用:119
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中文摘要
本研究旨在探討大學生依附風格、愛情關係中之壓力事件困擾與因應策略之關係。本研究的主要目的在瞭解大學生的依附風格、戀愛經驗與愛情關係中之壓力事件來源等現況,並探討依附風格、性別與壓力事件來源在困擾程度與因應策略上的差異情形。以台灣北部地區公私立大學及獨立學院學生共733名為研究對象,其中有325名受試為目前有戀愛對象者,175名受試為曾有過戀愛經驗但目前無戀愛對象者,233名受試為未曾有過戀愛經驗者。本研究採問卷調查法進行資料蒐集,全體受試者均施以「人際依附風格量表」,另外,有過戀愛經驗者(包括目前有戀愛對象者以及曾有過戀愛經驗但目前無戀愛對象者)則自述在愛情關係中令其印象深刻的壓力事件,並完成「事件衝擊量表」與「因應量表」。調查所得的資料分別以卡方考驗、三因子多變項變異數分析等統計方法進行處理;關於受試者自述之壓力事件內容則以編碼分類的方式進行資料分析。茲將本研究的主要發現分述如下:
一、依附風格、戀愛經驗與愛情關係中之壓力事件來源之現況
(一)本研究之全體受試的依附風格分佈狀況為:安全型佔34.9%,焦慮型佔33.3%,拒斥型佔27.4%,恐懼型佔4.4%,以安全型所佔的比例最高。
(二)本研究之全體受試的依附風格與性別之間沒有顯著關係存在,但就目前有戀愛對象以及未曾有過戀愛經驗的受試來說,依附風格與性別之間有顯著關係存在。在目前有戀愛對象的受試中,以安全型的男生與焦慮型的女生所佔的比例最高;在未曾有過戀愛經驗的受試中,安全型依附的男生的比例顯著地低於安全型依附的女生。
(三)大學生的依附風格與戀愛經驗之間沒有顯著關係存在。
(四)大學生在愛情關係中的壓力事件來源有:外在阻隔因素、兩人關係、三角關係與關係失落。
(五)大學生的依附風格與自述的壓力事件來源之間沒有顯著關係存在。
二、不同依附風格的男女大學生在愛情關係中不同壓力事件困擾上之差異情形
(一)不同依附風格的大學生對愛情關係中所發生的壓力事件之困擾有顯著差異存在。焦慮型依附比安全型依附的大學生有較高的「侵入症狀」表現。
(二)不同性別的大學生對愛情關係中所發生的壓力事件之困擾有顯著差異存在。女生比男生有較多的「侵入症狀」表現。
三、不同依附風格的男女大學生在愛情關係中不同壓力事件因應上之差異情形
(一)不同依附風格的大學生在愛情關係中所發生的壓力事件的因應上有顯著差異存在,且依附風格與壓力事件來源在壓力事件的因應上有交互作用效果。不同依附風格的大學生在面對愛情關係中不同的壓力事件時之因應情況如下:
1.安全型依附
(1)傾向於以問題解決的方式處理壓力事件;
(2)傾向於以正面的態度詮釋壓力事件;
(3)在不同的壓力情境下能有彈性的運用不同的因應策略;
(4)能有效的並用問題解決與情緒處理的因應策略。
2.焦慮型依附
(1)傾向於使用逃避的因應策略;
(2)在面對「三角關係」的壓力事件時,比拒斥型依附的大學生出現較多問題解決與尋求支持的因應策略。
3.拒斥型依附
(1)傾向於使用逃避的因應策略;
(2)面對不同的壓力事件,仍呈現一致的遠離、逃避因應策略。
(二)不同性別的大學生對愛情關係中所發生的壓力事件之因應策略有顯著差異存在。男生較女生傾向於使用較多的「使用菸酒藥物」的因應策略;而女生較男生傾向於使用較多的「表達感受並尋求支持」、「接受事實並正向詮釋」與「遠離問題」的因應策略。
最後,研究者依據本研究結果加以討論,並提出具體建議,以應用在兩性關係諮商與教育方面,並做為未來研究之參考。
Attachment Styles, Distress in Love Relationship, and Coping Strategies in College Students
Bi-Hui Huang
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship among adult attachment style, distress in love relationship, and coping strategies in college students. The study was designed to investigate the attachment style, love experience, and stressors in love relationship among college students, and to examine the relationship among the three variables. In addition, the study was designed to probe the effect of attachment style, gender, and stressors in love relationship on the degree of distress and on coping strategies. The sample was composed of 733 undergraduate students in Northern Taiwan. Among all participants, 325 participants were in love relationship, 175 participants had ever been in love relationship, and 233 participants have never been in love relationship. All subjects were asked to complete the “Attachment Style Scale” to assess their attachment styles. Subjects who were in love relationship or had ever been in love relationship were asked to write a narrative account of an impressive stressful experience in love relationship and to complete the “Impact of Event Scale ” and “The COPE Scale”. Chi-square analysis and three-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed to analyze the data gathered in the study. Subjects’ narrative accounts of impressive stressful experiences were analyzed by open coding approach. The major findings were as follows:
1. Attachment styles, love experience, and stressors in love relationship
(1)The proportions of the four attachment styles among all participants were as
follows: secure=34.9%, preoccupied=33.3%, dismissing=27.4%, fearful=4.4%.
(2)For all participants, attachment style was not significantly associated with gender. But for the participants who were in love relationship and those who have never been in love relationship, attachment style was significantly associated with gender.
(3)For all participants, attachment style was not significantly associated with love experience.
(4)Stressors in love relationship included “external barriers”, “difficulties between partners”, “a triangular relationship”, and “relationship loss”.
(5)Attachment style was not significantly associated with self-report stressors in love relationship.
2.Differences between male and female college students with different attachment styles regarding the distress from various stressors
(1)Results of the three-way MANOVA and ANOVA indicated a significant main effect of attachment style on the Intrusion subscale. Students with preoccupied attachment reported more intrusive symptoms than those with secure attachment.
(2)Results of the three-way MANOVA and ANOVA indicated a significant main effect of gender on the Intrusion subscale. Women reported more intrusive symptoms than men.
3.Differences between male and female college students with different attachment styles regarding the coping strategies for various stressors.
(1)Results of the three-way MANOVA indicated a significant main effect of attachment styles on coping strategies. In addition, there was an interaction between attachment styles and stressors on coping strategies. Differences shown in college students with different attachment styles regarding the coping strategies were as follows:
A.Secure attachment group
a. Secure attachment individuals tend to use task-oriented coping ;
b.They tend to use the “positive interpretation” coping strategy;
c.They can flexibly use different coping strategies under different stressful circumstances;
d.They can effectively employ the “problem-focused” strategy and “emotion-focused” strategy at the same time.
B.Preoccupied attachment group
a.Preoccupied attachment individuals tend to use the “distancing” coping
strategy;
b.When facing the stress of “a triangular relationship”, they are more likely
to use “problem-solving” and “support-seeking” coping strategies than dismissing attachment group.
C.Dismissing attachment group
a.Dismissing attachment individuals are inclined to use the “distancing”
coping strategy.
b.They tend to adopt the coping strategy of “being distant” or “avoidance” when facing various stressors.
(2)Results of the three-way MANOVA and ANOVA indicated a significant main effect of genders on “alcohol or drug use ”, “expressing emotions and seeking support”, “acceptance and positive interpretation”, “distancing”. Men reported more “alcohol or drug use ” coping strategy than women. Women reported more “expressing emotions and seeking support”, “acceptance and positive interpretation” and “distancing”coping strategies than men.
Based on the results, implications were discussed and suggestions for the counseling as well as future research were presented.
目 錄
中文摘要
英文摘要
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的………………………………………..1
第二節 研究問題與假設……………………………………….11
第三節 名詞釋義.……………………………………………....12
第四節 研究限制…...…………………………………………..15
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 依附的理論基礎與相關研究…………………………...16
第二節 因應的理論基礎與相關研究…………………………...40
第三節 依附風格與壓力困擾之關係與相關研究……………...50
第四節 依附風格與因應策略之關係與相關研究……………...57
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究架構………………………………………………...62
第二節 研究對象………………………………………………...66
第三節 研究工具………………………………………………...69
第四節 實施程序………………………………………………...83
第五節 資料分析………………………………………………...86
第四章 研究結果
第一節 依附風格、戀愛經驗與愛情關係中之壓力事件來源之現況分析…………………………………………………...88
第二節 不同依附風格的男女大學生在不同壓力事件困擾上的差異情形………………………………………………...96
第三節 不同依附風格的男女大學生在不同壓力事件因應上的差異情形……………………………………………….100
第五章 討論
第一節 大學生的依附風格、戀愛經驗與愛情關係中的壓力事件之現況…………………………………………………118
第二節 不同依附風格的男女大學生在不同壓力事件困擾上的差異情形……………………………………………….126
第三節 不同依附風格的男女大學生在不同壓力事件因應上的差異情形……………………………………………….131
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論…………………………………………………….146
第二節 研究限制……………………………………………….152
第三節 建議…………………………………………………….154
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………...160
附錄一 「事件衝擊量表」原編者同意修訂函………………..172
附錄二 「人際依附風格量表」原修訂者使用同意書………..173
附錄三 「事件衝擊量表」項目分析結果……………………..174
附錄四 「事件衝擊量表」因素分析結果……………………...175
附錄五 「因應量表」項目分析結果…………………………..176
附錄六 「因應量表」之因素分析結果………………………...180
附錄七 「因應量表」各分量表題項之因素負荷量…………..183
附錄八 預試問卷:「大學生人際依附風格與愛情關係因應策略問卷」………………………………………………….186
附錄九 正式問卷:「大學生人際依附風格與愛情關係因應策略問卷」…………………………………………………191
附表目錄
表2-1-1 Bowlby 對依附與依賴之比較…………………………………...19
表2-1-2 Ainsworth對壓力的陌生情境與家中觀察研究結果摘要表...….21
表2-1-3 成人依附測量工具………..………………………………………28
表3-2-1 預式研究樣本人數分配表………………………………………..67
表3-2-2 正式研究樣本人數分配表(有過戀愛經驗者)………………..67
表3-2-3 正式研究樣本人數分配表(未曾有過戀愛經驗者)…………..67
表3-2-4 正式研究樣本基本資料分配表…………………………………..68
表3-3-1 事件衝擊量表正式量表各分量表題項之因素負荷量…………..76
表3-3-2 因應量表之因素命名與題號……………………………………..81
表3-3-3 因應量表各分量表之信度………………………………………..82
表4-1-1 大學生依附風格與性別之關係的卡方考驗結果摘要表………..91
表4-1-2 大學生依附風格與戀愛經驗之關係的卡方考驗結果摘要表…..92
表4-1-3 有戀愛經驗之大學生依附風格與壓力事件來源之關係的卡方考驗結果摘要表…………………………………………………….95
表4-2-1 不同依附風格的男女大學生在不同壓力事件之事件衝擊量表各分量表的平均數與標準差………………………………...…….98
表4-2-2 不同依附風格的男女大學生對愛情關係中不同壓力事件之困擾
三因子多變量變異數分析摘要表……………………………….99
表4-2-3 男女大學生在事件衝擊量表上的得分………………………….99
表4-3-1 不同依附風格的男女大學生在不同壓力事件之因應量表各分量表的平均數與標準差……………………………………….….103
表4-3-2 不同依附風格的男女大學生對愛情關係中不同壓力事件因應之三因子多變量變異數分析摘要表……………………………...105
表4-3-3 男女大學生在面對不同來源之壓力事件時的因應策略之平均數與標準差………………………………………………………...108
表4-3-4 不同依附風格與不同壓力事件在因應策略上之單純主要效果考驗摘要表………………………………………………………..113
表4-3-5 不同依附風格的大學生在不同壓力事件來源下的因應策略比較摘要表(一)…………………………………………………..116
表4-3-6 不同依附風格的大學生在不同壓力事件來源下的因應策略比較摘要表(二)…………………………………………………..117
附圖目錄
圖2-1-1 內在運作模式的功能…………………………………………..18
圖2-1-2 Bartholomew 與Horowitz 的成人依附四分類模式………....25
圖3-1-1 研究變項間的關係架構圖(全體受試者)…………………...62
圖3-1-2 研究變項間的關係架構圖(有戀愛經驗的受試者)………...64
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