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研究生:林淑芳
論文名稱:中學生共依附特質與信任感之發展與相關研究
指導教授:林世華林世華引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:教育心理與輔導研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:172
中文關鍵詞:中學生青少年共依附信任感
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本研究旨在探討中學生共依附特質與信任感之發展與相關,以台灣地區、金門縣、澎湖縣國、高中學生共1264人為研究對象,採問卷調查法進行資料收集。所使用的研究工具包括「共依附量表」、「共依附評估量表」與「信任量表」。調查結果以二因子變異數分析、積差相關分析與典型相關分析等統計方法進行資料處理。本研究主要發現如下:
一、中學生於共依附特質上呈現出性別間的差異,女生共依附特質得分高於男生。此外,女生在「共依附量表」之「透過關係獲得意義感」與「認同照顧者角色」分量表得分高於男生;男生則比女生更傾向「無法表達內心的情感」。而高一與高二兩個年級的男生比女生更傾向於「以他人為焦點」。中學生在「共依附評估量表」及「共依附量表」之「透過關係獲得意義感」分量表表現上,呈現出年級間的差異,其中,高一學生的共依附特質得分高於國二學生,而高二學生比國二學生更傾向於「透過關係獲得意義感」。
二、中學生之共依附特質的發展並非呈現單一之發展趨向,隨著年級增加,中學生在「共依附評估量表」上呈現一次、二次、三次及四次的發展趨向,在「共依附量表」之「透過關係獲得意義感」分量表表現上呈現出三次的發展趨向。此外,男生在「共依附量表」之「以他人為焦點」分量表上呈現出三次發展趨向,女生則無明顯發展趨向。
三、中學生於信任量表之「可預測性」、「情緒性信任」與「堅信」分量表表現上呈現出性別間的差異,女生對同性好友的「可預測性」及「情緒性信任」高於男生;而對與同性好友之間關係長久性的「堅信」程度低於男生。在高三與國三兩個年級,女生對同性好友之「可依賴性」的信心高於男生。此外,中學生在信任感之「可預測性」與「情緒性信任」分量表上呈現出年級間的差異,其中高二學生比國一、國二學生對同性好友言行的可預測性持有較高的信心,高三學生亦高於國二學生;於「情緒性信任」方面,高中生得分高於國中生。
四、中學生之信任感的發展並非呈現單一之發展趨向,隨著年級增加,中學生在信任感之「可預測性」分量表上呈現一次的發展趨向;在「情緒性信任」分量表上呈現出一次及三次的發展趨向;此外,男生在信任感之「可依賴性」分量表上呈現出四次的發展趨向,女生則呈現一次的發展趨向。
五、中學生之共依附特質與信任感之間有典型相關存在,但兩者之間並非存在著單純的結構關係。第一組典型相關顯示,共依附特質與信任感呈現相反走向;第二組典型相關顯示,「透過關係獲得意義感」、「認同照顧者角色」得分高,於「以他人為焦點」、「無法表達情感」得分低時,雖然「堅信」分量表得分也跟著降低,但中學生在信任量表上之「可預測性」、「可依賴性」、「情緒性信任」三個分量表仍然可以得到較高的分數。第三組典型相關顯示顯示,「透過關係獲得意義感」、「無法表達情感」、「認同照顧者角色」傾向與信任中「可預測性」是相同方向共變,然而與「可依賴性」及「堅信」部分則是呈相反走向。
最後,根據本研究結果提出建議,作為教育、輔導及未來研究之參考。
A Study on Development and Relationship Between High School Students'' Codependency and Trust in Taiwan.
Shou-Fang Lin
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between high school students'' codependency and trust. The sample consisted of 1264 students from high schools in Taiwan, Jing-men, and Perng-hwu. The instruments used in this study included The Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale, Codependency Assessment Questionnaire, and Trust Scale. Data obtained in this study were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and canonical correlational analysis. The primary findings were as follows:
I. Sex and Grade Effects in High School Students'' Codependency
1.There were sex and grade differences in codependency, but no interaction between sex and grade, as measured by the Codependency Assessment Questionnaire. The female students showed more codependency than male students, and the first grade senior high school students showed more codependency than the second grade junior high school students.
2.There were sex difference, grade difference, and some interactions between sex and grade for the subscales of The Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale. The female students showed more "capturing a sense of purpose through relationships" and "identified care-taking activities" than male students and male students showed more "lack of open expression of feelings" than female students. The first two grade senior high school male students showed more "put the focus outside of self" than female students. The second grade senior high school students showed more "capture a sense of purpose through relationships" than the second grade junior high school students.
II. High School Students'' Comparison and Development on Trust
There were sex difference, grade difference, and some interactions
between sex and grade for the subscales of The Trust Scale. The female students showed more predictability trust and emotional trust than male students and the male students showed more faith than female students. The second grade senior high school students showed more predictability trust than the first and second grade junior high school students; the third grade senior high school students showed more predictability trust than the second grade junior high school students, too. As well, the senior high school students showed more emotional trust than the junior high school students; the third grade senior high school female students and the third grade junior high school female students showed more dependability trust than male students.
III.The Relationship Between High School Students'' Codependency and Trust
The first canonical function showed that the relationship between
codependency and trust was negative. The second canonical function showed high school students'' high scores in "capturing a sense of purpose through relationships" and "identified care-taking activities" subscales were associated with low scores both in "put the focus outside of self" and "lack of open expression of feelings" subscales and high scores in predictability, dependability and emotional trust. The last canonical function showed that high school students'' low scores in "capturing a sense of purpose through relationships," "lack of open expression of feelings," and "identified care-taking activities" subscales were associated with high scores in "put the focus outside of self" subscale and low scores in predictability trust and high scores in dependability trust and faith.
Based on the findings, implications and suggestions were proposed for the delivery of education, counseling services, and future research.
目 錄
中文摘要
英文摘要
第一章 緒論研究的重要性...………………………………………1研究動機與目的...……………………………………4研究問題與假設……………………………………8名詞釋義….…………………………………………12文獻探討共依附之相關文獻 ...………………………………15信任之相關文獻.……………………………………46研究方法研究架構….…………………………………………71研究對象….…………………………………………72研究工具….…………………………………………76實施程序…………………………...…….…………89資料處理與統計分析...…………………………..…90
第一節
第二節
第三節
第四節
第二章
第一節
第二節
第三章
第一節
第二節
第三節
第四節
第五節
第四章 結果與討論
第一節 中學階段共依附特質之比較與發展...……………..93
第二節 中學階段信任感之比較與發展...…………………112
第三節 中學階段共依附特質與信任感之相關…...………128
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論…...……………………………………………140
第二節 建議………...………………………………………151
參考文獻
一、中文部分………………………………………………157
二、英文部分………………………………………………159
附錄
附錄一 「SF CDS」原編作者同意修定函………………..173
附錄二 The Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale…………..174
附錄三 Codependency Assessment Questionnaire ….……..175
附錄四 Trust Scale………………………………………….177
附錄五 信任量表(中文版)………………………………....179
附錄六 生活適應量表……………………………………...181
附錄七 共依附F量表項目分析結果…………………..…185
附錄八 共依附F量表第三次預試之因素負荷量………...189
附錄九 共依附F量表四因素模式圖(第三次預試)………190
附錄十 共依附F量表驗證性因素分析結果……………..191
附錄十一 共依附F量表四因素模式圖(正式施測)…………192
附錄十二 共依附P量表預試之項目分析結果……………...193
附錄十三 共依附P量表預試之因素負荷量………………...194
附錄十四 共依附P量表單一因素模式圖(預試)……………195
附錄十五 共依附P量表驗證性因素分析結果……………...196
附錄十六 共依附P量表八因素模式圖(正式施測)…………197
附錄十七 信任量表項目分析結果…………………………...198
附錄十八 信任量表第二次預試之因素負荷量……………...201
附錄十九 信任量表四因素模式圖(第二次預試)……………202
附錄二十 信任量表驗證性因素分析結果…………………...203
附錄二十一 信任量表四因素模式圖(正式施測)…….…...……204
圖表目錄
圖3-1-1 研究架構圖………...……………………………...71
圖4-1-1 中學生在「以他人為焦點」分量表上性別與年級之交互作用情形……………………..…………...94
圖4-1-2 不同年級之中學生在「透過關係獲得意義感」分量表上的發展趨向……………………………….98
圖4-1-3 不同年級之中學生在共依附P量表上的發展趨向.………………………………………………...103
圖4-2-1 不同年級之中學生在「可預測性」分量表上的發展趨向………………………………….…………...114
圖4-2-2 中學生在「可依賴性」分量表上性別與年級之交互作用情形………………………….…………116
圖4-2-3 不同年級之中學生在「情緒性信任」分量表上的發展趨向………………………………….………...120
圖4-3-1 中學生之共依附特質與信任感的第一組典型相關結構圖.……………………………………………132
圖4-3-2 中學生之共依附特質與信任感的第二組典型相關結構圖……….……………………………………132
圖4-3-3 中學生之共依附特質與信任感的第三組典型相關結構圖…………….………………………………133
表2-1-1 共依附定義取向分類……………………………..23
表2-1-2 Potter and Potter與Fischer et al.提出的共依附定義…………………………………………………..24
表2-1-3 國內共依附量表….……………………………….38
表2-2-1 靜態信任定義……………………………………..49
表2-2-2 動態信任定義……………...…….………………..50
表2-2-3 信任的類型……………….………………...……..57
表2-2-4 特定人際信任組成因素……….……………….....61
表2-2-5 信任的測量…………………………….…...……..68
表3-2-1 第一次預試有效樣本人數分配表………………..73
表3-2-2 第二次預試有效樣本人數分配表…...………..….74
表3-2-3 第三次預試抽樣學校與年級分配表……………..74
表3-2-4 第三次預試有效樣本人數分配表………….....….75
表3-2-5 正式施測抽樣學校與年級分配表………………..75
表3-2-6 正式施測有效樣本人數分配表…………….....….76
表3-3-1 共依附P量表內涵……..………………………….81
表3-3-2 中學生共依附F量表各分量表與共依附P量表之間的積差相關矩陣……..…………….……………….83
表4-1-1 不同性別及年級之中學生在「以他人為焦點」分量表得分的平均數與標準差………………………...94
表4-1-2 不同性別及年級之中學生在「以他人為焦點」分量表上的二因子變異數分析摘要表………….....…..94
表4-1-3 單純主要效果的變異數分析摘要表…………...…95
表4-1-4 中學生在「以他人為焦點」分量表上的趨向分析摘要表……………………………………………..…95
表4-1-5 不同性別及年級之中學生在「透過關係獲得意義感」分量表得分的平均數與標準差……………….…97
表4-1-6 不同性別及年級之中學生在「透過關係獲得意義感」分量表上的二因子變異數分析摘要表………..97
表4-1-7 不同年級之中學生在「透過關係獲得意義感」分量表上的事後比較…………………………….…97
表4-1-8 不同年級之中學生在「透過關係獲得意義感」分量表上的趨勢分析摘要表……………………...…98
表4-1-9 不同性別及年級之中學生在「無法表達情感」分量表得分的平均數與標準差……………..….…100
表4-1-10 不同性別及年級之中學生在「無法表達情感」分量表上的二因子變異數分析摘要表……….…100
表4-1-11 不同性別及年級之中學生在「認同照顧者角色」分量表得分的平均數與標準差…………..…….…..101
表4-1-12 不同性別及年級之中學生在「認同照顧者角色」分量表上的二因子變異數分析摘要表……………..101
表4-1-13 不同性別及年級之中學生在共依附P量表上得分的平均數與標準差……………………….…….….102
表4-1-14 不同性別及年級之中學生在共依附P量表上的二因子變異數分析摘要表…………………………….103
表4-1-15 不同年級之中學生在共依附P量表上的事後比較…………………………………………………103
表4-1-16 中學生在共依附P量表上的趨向分析摘要表….104
表4-2-1 不同性別及年級之中學生在「可預測性」分量表得分的平均數與標準差……………………...…113
表4-2-2 不同性別及年級之中學生在「可預測性」分量表上的二因子變異數分析摘要表………….…………113
表4-2-3 不同年級之中學生在「可預測性」分量表上的事後比較…………………………………….……....113
表4-2-4 不同年級之中學生在「可預測性」分量表上的趨勢分析摘要表………………………………………114
表4-2-5 不同性別及年級之中學生在「可依賴性」分量表得分的平均數與標準差………………...……..……116
表4-2-6 不同性別及年級之中學生在「可依賴性」分量表上的二因子變異數分析摘要表………..…...………116
表4-2-7 單純主要效果的變異數分析摘要表…………....117
表4-2-8 中學生在「可依賴性」分量表上的趨向分析摘要表…………………………………………………117
表4-2-9 不同性別及年級之中學生在「情緒性信任」分量表得分的平均數與標準差……...……...…………..119
表4-2-10 不同性別及年級之中學生在「情緒性信任」分量表上的二因子變異數分析摘要表….……………...119
表4-2-11 不同年級之中學生在「情緒性信任」分量表上的事後比較.………………………………...……….119
表4-2-12 不同年級之中學生在「情緒性信任」分量表上的趨勢分析摘要表…….…………………………….120
表4-2-13 不同性別及年級之中學生在「堅信」分量表得分的平均數與標準差….…………………………….122
表4-2-14 不同性別及年級之中學生在「堅信」分量表上的二因子變異數分析摘要表…………….…………..122
表4-3-1 中學生共依附F量表各分量表、共依附P量表與信任量表各分量表之間的相關情形…………….129
表4-3-2 中學生共依附特質與信任感典型相關分析摘要表…………………………………………………...131
表5-1-1-1 研究結果………………………………….……...140
表5-1-1-2 研究結果………………………………….……...141
參考文獻
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