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研究生:吳青蓉
研究生(外文):Ching-Jung Wu
論文名稱:英語學習歷程模式之驗證暨「主題建構式語言學習策略」對國中生英語學習表現影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Verification of English Learning Process Model and A Study of the Effects of Theme-Constructive Language Learning Strategies on English Performance
指導教授:張景媛張景媛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Yuan Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:教育心理與輔導研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:312
中文關鍵詞:英語學習歷程模式情意反應行動控制後設認知學習表現主題建構式語言學習策略錯誤分析
外文關鍵詞:English Learning Process Modelaffective reactionaction controlmetacognitionlearning performanceTheme-Constructive Language Learning Strategieserror analysis
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本研究主要目的有五:一是統整有關學習理論、外語學習與習得理論、學習動機與情感等相關因素,建構一個國中生「英語學習歷程模式」。二是探討學生在英語學習時會產生的錯誤類型,並探究不同程度學生的英語學習情形。三是依據國中生「英語學習歷程模式」中的重要變項及學生英語錯誤分析結果,設計一套適合國中生有效學習的「主題建構式語言學習策略」之教學課程。四是探討「主題建構式語言學習策略」教學實驗對國中生英語學習表現之影響。五是深入瞭解在接受「主題建構式語言學習策略」教學後,學生的英語學習歷程與轉變情形。
針對上述研究目的,本研究分「研究一」、「研究二」與「研究三」三部分來進行。在研究一中,本研究者提出一個以英語為特定領域,包含情意反應、行動控制、後設認知與學習表現四個成分的「英語學習歷程模式」,並就此一模式加以驗證。研究對象來自國內北、中、南區九所學校共449名國中二年級學生。研究工具包括:英語情意反應量表、英語行動控制量表、英語後設認知量表、英語成就測驗(聽力、閱讀、寫作)等四種。模式考驗結果發現,除易受樣本數影響的卡方考驗外,在基本適配度、整體模式適配度和模式內在結構適配度等方面,都顯示本研究所提出的「英語學習歷程模式」跟一般國二學生的觀察資料可以適配。換言之,本研究所提出的「英語學習歷程模式」可以用來解釋一般國中二年級學生的觀察資料。
在研究二中,本研究者先針對學生英語學習錯誤進行質的分析。受試為英語高、中、低能力的學生各五位,採用放聲思考來瞭解學生英語學習情形。結果發現:這些學生在英語學習時會有跨語言間的錯誤(語際干擾、忽略規則)和普遍性語言學習錯誤(過度類化、過度使用)等錯誤類型產生。因此,本研究二依據研究一所建構的「英語學習歷程模式」的四個重要成分(情意反應、行動控制、後設認知、學習表現)與對學生英語錯誤的瞭解與發現,來設計「主題建構式語言學習策略」以進行教學實驗。在課程設計完成後,由於研究學校是採「兩班為單位的能力分組教學」,所以本研究以國中二年級學生共147名為對象,分為實驗組(A、B)與控制組(A、B)進行教學實驗。藉由英語情意反應量表、行動控制量表、後設認知量表、英語聽、說、讀、寫四方面的成就測驗(前、後測)等工具的實施,以三因子混合設計變異數分析的方法進行統計處理。研究結果發現:
1. 本研究的「主題建構式語言學習策略」教學課程有助於維持實驗組學生在英語學習情意反應(價值、期望、成就動機)、行動控制(認知控制、他人控制)、後設認知(自我監控、自我評鑑、自我修正、策略使用)、與學習表現(閱讀、寫作、口語)等方面的表現,甚至在口語表現上呈逐漸進步的趨勢,反觀控制組學生在這些方面則從初期到後期呈逐步下滑的趨勢。
2. 不論能力高、低,學生在聽力表現上從初期到後期呈逐漸下滑的趨勢。
3. 在口語表現上,實驗組的低能力者顯著優於控制組的低能力者。
在研究三中,本研究深入瞭解學生英語學習歷程與轉變情形。本研究三採用質性研究方法,以研究二的實驗組A、實驗組B共72名學生為研究對象,針對他們的英語學習歷程進行一學期的研究,將所得資料從情意反應、行動控制、後設認知、學習表現與個別學生學習歷程探討等方面來進行分析。結果發現,接受「主題建構式語言學習策略」教學後,不僅A組學生會善用策略來保護學習意向與主動對自己的英語學習進行監控、評鑑與修正;B組學生藉由多元、有趣的英語課程,逐漸對英語感興趣。他們學會覺察與控制行動意向並利用策略來幫助自己評鑑與修正英語學習情形。從學習歷程上可知,A、B兩組學生在接受實驗教學後,都對英語學習更有信心,也更願意去學習。
綜合而言,透過研究一的模式考驗、研究二與研究三的實證研究結果,本研究所提出的「英語學習歷程模式」可以獲得支持。而本研究依據模式所設計的「主題建構式語言學習策略」教學課程從研究二與研究三的結果可知對於學生的英語學習有所助益。最後,研究者根據研究結果,提出幾項建議做為英語教學及未來進一步研究的參考。
The purposes of this study were: (1) to verify the goodness of fit between empirically observed data and English Learning Process Model proposed by the author; (2) to investigate students’ errors in learning English with the use of qualitative analysis, and further to explore the ways how different students construct English concepts; (3) to design a teaching program based on "theme-constructive language learning strategies" (4) to examine the effects of the "theme-constructive language learning strategies" teaching program developed by the author; (5) to analyze the learning process of the students with the use of qualitative analysis and portfolio process assessment.
In order to accomplish these purposes, the whole study was divided into three parts. In Study I the researcher proposed an English Learning Process Model which included the components of affective reaction, action control, metacognition, and learning performance and verified the goodness of fit of the English Learning Process Model. The participants were 449 eighth-grade students from nine junior high schools in northern, central, and southern Taiwan. The instruments employed in this study include: Affective Reaction Inventory, Action Control Inventory, Metacognition Inventory, and English Achievement Test. Except the Chi square test that was easily influenced by the sample size, the results indicated that the English Learning Process Model fitted the observed data well in preliminary, overall, and internal structure model fit criteria.
In Study II, the researcher first investigated students’ errors in learning English with the use of qualitative analysis involving thinking-aloud and thinking-by-questioning methods. The participants were 15 eighth-grade students from three groups with high, middle, and low ability in English. The results indicated that mother language played a key role in students’ English learning process and their errors could be classified into two patterns: cross-language errors (interference, neglecting of the rules) and universal errors (overgeneralization, overuse). Then, according to the results of Study I and error analysis, the researcher designed a teaching program of theme-constructive language learning strategies and examined the effects of the program. The participants were 147 eight-grade students belonging to experimental group (A, B) and control group (A, B). The instruments employed in Study II include: Affective Reaction Inventory, Action Control Inventory, Metacognition Inventory, English Achievement Tests (Pretest and Protest). The data thus obtained were analyzed by three-way mixed-design ANOVA. The results of Study II were presented as follows:
1. "The Teaching Program of Theme-Constructive Language Learning Strategies" could help the experimental group maintain their performance in affective reaction(value, expectation, and achievement motivation ), action control(cognitive control and others control), metacognition(self-monitoring, self- evaluating, self-modification, and strategizing ), and English learning performance(reading, writing, and speaking). But the performance of the control group in these inventories and tests were declining.
2. The performance of the students in high-ability group (A) and low-ability (B) group was on the decline from the listening pretest to listening protest.
3. The oral performance of the low-ability students in experimental group was better than their counterparts in control group.
In Study III the researcher analyzed students’ learning process in English more deeply with the use of qualitative analysis and portfolio process assessment. The participants were 72 eight-grade students from experimental group (A, B). The data collected were analyzed from five aspects: affective reaction, action control, metacognition, learning performance, and case developmental process. The results indicated that after the teaching, the students in experimental group A could use the strategies to retain their learning intentions and be active to monitor, evaluate, and modify their English learning. The students in experimental group B were gradually interested in learning English. They were aware of their learning and tried to concentrate themselves, and then used the strategies to help them evaluate and modify what they learned. In short, from the analysis of students’ English learning process, the students in experimental group (A, B) became more confident and willing to learn English after the teaching program of theme-constructive language learning strategies.
To conclude, the results of Study I, II, and III support the effects of the "English Learning Process Model" proposed. Based on the results of the study, the researcher also provided a discussion in which some recommendations have been made regarding instructional assistance and future studies.
目 錄
中文摘要
英文摘要
附圖目次
附表目次
第一章 緒 論
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究問題與假設 6
第三節 名詞解釋. 10
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 學習理論與相關研究 14
第二節 語言學習理論與相關研究 38
第三節 主題建構式語言學習策略 65
第四節 文獻探討綜述 72
第三章 研究一:國中生英語學習歷程模式之驗證
第一節 研究方法 73
第二節 研究結果 83
第三節 討論 97
第四章 研究二:「主題建構式語言學習策略」之實證研究
第一節 研究方法 101
第二節 研究結果 111
第三節 討論 157
第五章 研究三:國中生英語學習歷程之研究
第一節 研究方法 167
第二節 研究結果 174
第三節 討論 215
第六章 綜合討論、結論與建議
第一節 綜合討論 225
第二節 結論 228
第三節 建議 231
參考文獻 240
附 錄
附錄一 情意反應量表項目分析及因素分析結果 260
附錄二 行動控制量表項目分析及因素分析結果 262
附錄三 後設認知量表項目分析及因素分析結果 264
附錄四 英語成就測驗前測的難度、鑑別度、與總分相關
之分析結果 266
附錄五 英語成就測驗後測的難度、鑑別度、與總分相關
之分析結果 268
附錄六 英語成就測驗(聽說讀寫)前測試題 270
附錄七 英語成就測驗(聽說讀寫)後測試題 274
附錄八 「主題建構式語言學習策略」教學活動設計示例 278
附錄九 「主題建構式語言學習策略」教學活動學習單 286
附錄十 學生學習歷程檔案 309
附圖目次
圖2- 1 訊息處理理論的學習模式 15
圖2- 2 閱讀與寫作整合的寫作歷程精簡模式 32
圖2- 3 自我調整學習的模式. 33
圖2- 4 個別差異構念的暫時性分類 34
圖2- 5 意志力循環模式 35
圖2- 6 The Foresee理論模式 36
圖2- 7 本研究的國中生「英語學習歷程模式」 37
圖2- 8 第二語言習得的模式 43
圖2- 9 傳統與處理輸入的外語教學比較 63
圖2-10 「主題建構式語言學習策略」的教學模式 65
圖2-11 本研究整體研究架構圖 72
圖3- 1 本研究英語學習歷程模式之因果徑路圖 80
圖3- 2 國中生「英語學習歷程模式」標準化徑路係數圖 .92
圖4- 1 「主題建構式語言學習策略」課程圖 .105
圖4- 2 組別與測量階段在價值上的交互作用 .127
圖4- 3 組別與測量階段在期望上的交互作用 .129
圖4- 4 組別與測量階段在成就動機上的交互作用 .131
圖4- 5 組別與測量階段在認知控制上的交互作用 .133
圖4- 6 組別與測量階段在他人控制上的交互作用 .136
圖4- 7 組別與測量階段在自我監控上的交互作用 .140
圖4- 8 組別與測量階段在自我評鑑上的交互作用 .142
圖4- 9 組別與測量階段在自我修正上的交互作用 .144
圖4-10 組別與測量階段在策略使用上的交互作用 .146
圖4-11 能力與測量階段在聽力表現上的交互作用 .148
圖4-12 組別與測量階段在閱讀表現上的交互作用 .151
圖4-13 組別與測量階段在寫作表現上的交互作用 .153
圖4-14 組別與測量階段在口語表現上的交互作用 .155
圖4-15 組別與能力在口語表現上的交互作用 .156
附表目次
表2-1 行動控制策略分類表 27
表2-2 傳統評量與多元評量之比較 28
表2-3 評量使用與教學使用的檔案比較 30
表2-4 國中英語第三冊各課涵蓋的主題、溝通功能及語言結構 66
表2-5 後設認知的學習策略 70
表3-1 情意反應量表的內部一致性係數、折半信度一覽表 .74
表3-2 行動控制策略量表的內部一致性係數、折半信度一覽表 75
表3-3 後設認知量表的內部一致性係數、折半信度一覽表 76
表3-4 「英語成就測驗預試之雙向細目表」. 77
表3-5 成就測驗前測的內部一致性係數、折半信度一覽表. 78
表3-6 成就測驗後測的內部一致性係數、折半信度一覽表 78
表3-7 英語學習歷程模式15個觀察指標的相關係數矩陣 84
表3-8 英語學習歷程模式估計參數的顯著性考驗及標準化係數值 85
表3-9 英語學習歷程模式的整體適配度考驗結果 87
表3-10 英語學習歷程模式的個別項目信度與潛在變項的組成信度、
平均變異抽取量 89
表3-11 英語學習歷程模式四個潛在變項的交互相關係數 90
表3-12 英語學習歷程模式各變項之間接效果值及顯著性考驗 94
表3-13 英語學習歷程模式各變項之全體效果值及顯著性考驗 96
表4-1 口語表現評量標準 103
表4-2 英語教學策略實驗設計 107
表4-3-1 組別、能力及階段在「正向情感」上得分的平均數與標準差 124
表4-3-2 組別、能力及階段在「正向情感」上之三因子混合設計
變異數分析摘要表 125
表4-4-1 組別、能力及階段在「價值」上得分的平均數與標準差 125
表4-4-2 組別、能力及階段在「價值」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 126
表4-4-3 組別與階段在「價值」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 126
表4-5-1 組別、能力及階段在「期望」上得分的平均數與標準差 127
表4-5-2 組別、能力及階段在「期望」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 128
表4-5-3 組別與階段在「期望」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 128
表4-6-1 組別、能力及階段在「成就動機」上得分的平均數與標準差 129
表4-6-2 組別、能力及階段在「成就動機」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 130
表4-6-3 組別與階段在「成就動機」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 130
表4-7-1 組別、能力及階段在「認知控制」上得分的平均數與標準差 132
表4-7-2 組別、能力及階段在「認知控制」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 132
表4-7-3 組別與階段在「認知控制」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 133
表4-8-1 組別、能力及階段在「情意控制」上得分的平均數與標準差 133
表4-8-2 組別、能力及階段在「情意控制」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 134
表4-9-1 組別、能力及階段在「他人控制」上得分的平均數與標準差 134
表4-9-2 組別、能力及階段在「他人控制」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 135
表4-9-3 組別與階段在「他人控制」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 135
表4-10-1 組別、能力及階段在「情境控制」上得分的平均數與標準差 136
表4-10-2 組別、能力及階段在「情境控制」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 137
表4-11-1 組別、能力及階段在「自我監控」上得分的平均數與標準差 138
表4-11-2 組別、能力及階段在「自我監控」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 138
表4-11-3 組別與階段在「自我監控」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 139
表4-12-1 組別、能力及階段在「自我評鑑」上得分的平均數與標準差 140
表4-12-2 組別、能力及階段在「自我評鑑」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 140
表4-12-3 組別與階段在「自我評鑑」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 141
表4-13-1 組別、能力及階段在「自我修正」上得分的平均數與標準差 142
表4-13-2 組別、能力及階段在「自我修正」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 143
表4-13-3 組別與階段在「自我修正」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 143
表4-14-1 組別、能力及階段在「策略使用」上得分的平均數與標準差 144
表4-14-2 組別、能力及階段在「策略使用」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 145
表4-14-3 組別與階段在「策略使用」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 145
表4-15-1 組別、能力及階段在「聽力表現」上得分的平均數與標準差 147
表4-15-2 組別、能力及階段在「聽力表現」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 147
表4-15-3 能力與階段在「聽力表現」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 148
表4-16-1 組別、能力及階段在「閱讀表現」上得分的平均數與標準差 149
表4-16-2 組別、能力及階段在「閱讀表現」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 149
表4-16-3 組別與階段在「閱讀表現」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 150
表4-17-1 組別、能力及階段在「寫作表現」上得分的平均數與標準差 151
表4-17-2 組別、能力及階段在「寫作表現」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 152
表4-17-3 組別與階段在「寫作表現」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 152
表4-18-1 組別、能力及階段在「口語表現」上得分的平均數與標準差 153
表4-18-2 組別、能力及階段在「口語表現」上之三因子混合設計變異數
分析摘要表 154
表4-18-3 組別與階段在「口語表現」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 154
表4-18-4 組別與能力在「口語表現」上之單純主要效果分析摘要表 155
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