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研究生:高博銓
研究生(外文):Kao Po Chuan
論文名稱:國民小學階段重要教學原則及其實踐經驗
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Important Principles of Teaching and Their Practical Application in Elementary Schools
指導教授:單文經單文經引用關係
指導教授(外文):Son Win-Jean
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:教學教學原則
外文關鍵詞:teachingthe principles of teaching
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:11
  • 點閱點閱:428
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘 要
本研究主要是採取文獻分析、理論探究、以及焦點團體訪談的方法,來探討國民小學階段中,重要的教學原則,同時瞭解其在實際教學活動中的實踐經驗。
首先,研究者分別從教學活動的準備階段、執行階段、以及評估階段來進行分析,指出教學各階段中的重要實施原則。準備階段的教學原則是:(1)擬定適當的教學目標;(2)編選符合目標的課程;(3)評估學生的先備條件;(4)掌握學習內容的意義;(5)準備適當的教學器材;以及(6)規劃縝密的教學流程。執行階段的教學原則是:(1)營造良好的班級氣氛;(2)提供充裕的學習機會;(3)指出明確的學習重點;(4)呈現紮實的學習內容;(5)進行智慧的教學對話;(6)實施充分的練習活動;(7)提供高度的鷹架支持;(8)教導有效的學習策略;(9)安排合作的學習活動;(10)懷抱適當的教師期望;(11)設計新奇的教學刺激;以及(12)運用差異的教學策略。評估階段的教學原則是:(1)涵蓋綜合的學習內容;(2)掌握全程的學習概況;(3)運用真實的教學評量;(4)實施有效的評量方法;(5)採取多樣的評量策略;(6)鼓勵創新的反省思考;(7)注重關懷的反省思考;(8)強化批判的反省思考;(9)重視縝密的反省思考;以及(10)強調合作的反省思考。至於綜觀教學活動各階段所歸納出來的整體性教學原則則包括:(1)做好充分的教學準備;(2)提供豐富的學習支援;(3)涵育優質的學習文化;(4)運用有效的教學策略;(5)採取適當的教學評量;以及(6)強調積極的反省思考。
其次,除了上述所提出的諸項教學原則外,本研究也對於這些教學原則的應用以及未來相關研究的實施,提出了一些建議。就前者來說,應用教學原則時,應該朝幾個方向努力:(1)體察社會環境的變遷,靈活運用各項的原則;(2)涵育優質的學校文化,增進諸項原則的應用;(3)加強教師的專業知能,發揮原則的實質功能;(4)掌握各層面的原則,擴大學習教學的效果;(5)鼓勵專業性的對話,促進彼此的經驗交流;(6)善用原則的檢核功能,改善教學的品質。
最後,對於未來相關研究的進行,本研究則臚列了幾項作法:(1)評估焦點團體訪談的數量,確保整個研究的效能;(2)選擇特定研究領域,探討相關的教學原則;(3)檢視我國教學原則的演變,掌握亙古不變的律則;(4)
A Study on the Important Principles of Teaching and Their Practical Application in Elementary Schools
Abstract
The dissertation aimed at analyzing important principles of teaching and investigating their practical application in elementary schools by using multiple methods, such as literature reviews, theoretical analysis and focus group interviews.
Firstly, The researcher emphasized on the analysis of teaching process, and investigated the important principles of teaching by analyzing teaching activities─including preparatory stage, executive stage and evaluative stage of teaching process. In respect of the principles of preparatory stage, such principles of teaching as follows were mainly harnessed: (1) to draft out appropriate goals of teaching; (2) to design curriculum suited for objectives; (3) to assess the prerequisite of students; (4) to lay hold of the meaning of learning; (5) to prepare for adequate teaching aids. With respect to the principles of executive stage, the following principles were highly employed: (1)to create supportive classroom climate; (2) to provide ample opportunity to learn; (3 to show key points of learning; (4) to present coherent content; (5) to give a thoughtful discourse; (6) to display abundant practice activities; (7) to administer active scaffolding; (8) to teach effective learning strategies; (9) to arrange cooperative learning; (10) to establish appropriate expectations; (11) to find innovative stimulus to learn; (12) to use differentiated teaching strategies. As for the principles of evaluative stage, the principles of learning and teaching as follows were prevalent: (1) to include comprehensive learning; (2) to closely monitor all of the learning; (3) to use authentic assessment; (4) to apply effective methods of evaluation; (5) to adopt multiple evaluative strategies; (6) to encourage creative reflection; (7) to value caring reflection; (8) to stress on critical reflection; (9) to put emphasis on contemplative reflection; (10) to promote collegial reflection. To synthesize three stages of the teaching process, the researcher inferred such holistic principles of teaching as follows: (1) to make ample preparation for teaching; (2) to provide extensive support for learning; (3) to diffuse quality learning culture; (4) to use effective teaching strategies; (5) to adopt appropriate evaluation; (6) to emphasize active reflection.
Secondly, the researcher offered some suggestions for applying the principles of teaching to elementary schools in Taiwan. Such suggestions are as follows: (1) to know the rapidly changing society and wisely use principles; (2) to cultivate quality school climate and improve the application of principles; (3) to upgrade teacher’s pedagogical expertise and exercise principles’ function; (4) to grasp the gist of principles and enlarge the effect of learning and teaching. (5) to encourage professional discourse and extract experience from mutual exchange; (6) to make good use of the checklist of principles and improve the quality of learning and teaching.
Finally, for future research, the researcher should take these tips, which are: (1)to carefully decide the numbers of focused group interview and ensure the efficiency of the study;(2)to choose specific domains and investigate the education-related principles of teaching;(3)to review the change of principles of teaching in Taiwan and take hold of the eternal principles of teaching;(4)to adopt practice-oriented research strategies and develop practical and feasible principles of teaching.
目 次
第一章 緒論.......................1
第一節 研究動機與目的................1
第二節 研究方法與步驟................7
第三節 研究範圍與限制................15
第四節  名詞解釋...................16
第二章 文獻探討.....................18
第一節 準備階段的教學原則..............19
第二節 執行階段的教學原則..............38
第三節 評估階段的教學原則..............71
第四節 整體性的教學原則...............101
第三章 焦點團體訪談的設計與實施.............106
第一節 焦點團體訪談的設計..............106
第二節 焦點團體訪談的實施..............117
第四章 研究結果的分析與討論...............125
第一節 學習資料的分析與討論.............125
第二節 教學資料的分析與討論.............157
第三節 綜合討論...................190
第五章 研究結論與建議.................206
第一節 研究結論..................206
第二節 研究建議..................209
參考文獻.........................215
附錄...........................224
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1. 許義雄(民78):運動教練的角色-就人本主義觀點談起。中華體育,11期,60-62頁。
2. 黃金柱(民79):國家級運動教練領導行為之調查研究。國立體育學院論叢。1卷2期,33-62頁。
3. 涂志賢(民89):運動教練領導風格對選手成績表現與滿意度影響之研究。體育學報,28輯,45-58頁。
4. 郭南宏(民73):運動、學業與生活。國民體育季刊,13卷4期,21-24頁。
5. 武育勇(民73):運動員的生活管理。國民體育季刊。13卷4期,34-38頁。
6. 卓國雄(民88):探討教練領導行為、選手目標取向、選手所知覺的運動動機氣候與團隊凝聚力的相關研究。中華體育,13卷3期,13-20頁。
7. 季力康(民86):探討目標取向理論的發展觀點。中華體育,40期,87-93頁。
8. 季力康(民82):運動目標取向量表-信度與效度分析。國立體育學院論叢,4卷1期,179-185頁。
9. 吳萬福(民81):運動教練的任務、類型與內容。體育與運動,81期,32-35頁。
10. 李秀華(民85):不同水準選手目標取向及內在動機之相關探討。國立體育學院論叢,7卷1期,45-52頁。
11. 李清楠(民73):運動員的生活、學業與職業。國民體育季刊,13卷4期,31-33頁。
12. 王品義(民73):嚴格管理運動員的生活。國民體育季刊,13卷4期,39-40頁。
13. 簡茂發(1999)。多元評量之理念與方法,教師天地,99期,頁11~17。
14. 單文經(2000)。析論抗拒課程改革的原因及其對策--以國民中小學九年一貫課程為例。教育研究集刊,45,15~34。
15. 陳天賜(民88):職業棒球總教練更迭與球隊績效之關係-台灣職業棒球運動之實證研究。體育學報,27輯,69-80頁。