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研究生:高毓秀
研究生(外文):Yu-hsiu Kao
論文名稱:職場員工運動行為改變計劃之實驗研究--跨理論模式之應用
論文名稱(外文):The Program of Exercise Behavioral Change for the Workers in the Worksite: Application of Transtheoretical Model
指導教授:呂昌明呂昌明引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:衛生教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:239
中文關鍵詞:職場員工運動階段身體活動跨理論模式運動自我效能自覺運動障礙自覺運動利益
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:182
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  • 下載下載:877
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:15
摘 要
本研究之主要目的在探討職場員工之運動行為改變計劃介入對實驗組研究對象之自覺運動利益、自覺運動障礙、運動自我效能、運動階段及身體活動量的成效。採用「準實驗設計」,實驗組、對照組前後測方式進行。實驗處理是實驗組接受運動行為改變介入計劃活動,而對照組則不接受任何的實驗處理。以立意取樣方式選擇南部某電信公司全體員工為實驗組研究對象。同時,另外選取某通信分公司之全體員工為對照組。本研究根據員工自己參與的意願,進行運動行為計劃之介入,結果前後測收案資料共有193人,其中實驗組有133人,對照組有60人。研究工具之結構式問卷包括運動階段、自覺運動利益、自覺運動障礙、運動自我效能、基本資料及身體活動情形。運動行為改變計劃之介入內容,針對不同的運動階段的員工,應用跨理論模式中改變過程之策略,設計的運動行為改變計劃:包括各運動階段的教學活動、辦公室柔軟操及優秀健康體能選拔活動等。資料處理係以SAS for Window 6.11版之統計軟體進行分析,統計方法含描述性統計分析、t檢定及卡方檢定、配對t檢定、Bowker’s test of symmetry、共變數分析、單因子變異數分析、薛費氏事後比較及皮爾森積差相關。
研究對象平均年齡為46.3歲,年齡層多數集中在36-55歲之間,以男性、已婚、自覺健康狀況為「普通」者、無罹患慢性疾病、沒有擔任運動代表的經驗、無參加任何運動團體經驗者及無運動傷害經驗居多。主要研究結果如下:
一、實驗組在計劃介入實施後比計畫實施前運動人口有顯著的增加,計劃實施前「規律運動者」有37.6﹪,計劃實施後「規律運動者」有57.1﹪,計劃實施後規律運動人口增加近20﹪。而對照組在計畫介入前後運動人口無產生明顯的變化。
二、計畫介入前後運動社會心理因素之變化,實驗組在計畫介入後,自覺運動利益及運動自我效能皆顯著高於計畫介入前,而自覺運動障礙顯著低於計畫介入前,但對照組此三者之計畫介入前後結果則無顯著差異。
三、計畫介入前後身體活動量之變化,實驗組在計畫介入後,「平日身體活動量」及「平日中重度身體活動量」均未顯著高於計畫介入前,而「假日身體活動量」、「假日中重度身體活動量」、「三日身體活動量」及「三日中重度身體活動量」則顯著高於計畫介入前。而上述六項身體活動量對照組在計畫介入前後則無顯著差異。
四、經兩組前測為共變項之共變數分析之後,實驗組後測之「自覺運動利益」及「運動自我效能」分數皆顯著高於對照組後測之分數。而實驗組後測之「自覺運動障礙」分數顯著低於對照組後測之分數。
五、經兩組前測為共變項之共變數分析之後,實驗組後測之「平日身體活動量」及「平日中重度身體活動量」與對照組後測之間的差異,皆未達顯著水準。而實驗組後測之「假日身體活動量」、「假日中重度身體活動量」、「三日身體活動量」及「三日中重度身體活動量」顯著高於對照組後測。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise intervention on improvement of perceived exercise benefit, perceived exercise barrier, exercise self-efficacy, stages of exercise, and physical activity. A Quasi-experimental design was utilized and purposive sampling was conducted at a telecom worksite of southern Taiwan. One hundred and ninety-three subjects were assigned into experimental and control group. The experimental group, which consisted of 133 subjects, participated a program of exercise intervention. The intervention program applied the Transtheoretical Model to aid subjects in developing effective approaches within different stages of the exercise change. It included teaching activities for the different stage of exercise, flexibility exercise of office, and health-related fitness test. The control group, which consisted of 60 subjects, had no treatment. The subjects completed a structured questionnaire, including stages of exercise, perceived exercise benefit, perceived exercise barrier, exercise self-efficacy, and physical activity, at the pre-test and 5-month follow-up test.
Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test, paired t-test, Bowker’s test of symmetry, analysis of covariance, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe’s post hoc comparison and Pearson product-moment correlation. After exercise intervention, the results in the experimental group of follow-up test showed that (1) the percentage of regular exercise increased significantly, approximately 20%, (2) perceived exercise benefit, perceived exercise barrier, and exercise self-efficacy improved significantly, (3) the weekend day and the average of the weekday and weekend day had higher estimated energy expenditure than those of pre-test, (4) perceived exercise benefit and exercise self-efficacy had significantly higher than those in the control group of follow-up test while perceived exercise barrier had significantly lower than those in the control group of follow-up test, and (5) the weekend day and the average of the weekday and weekend day had higher estimated energy expenditure than those in the control group of follow-up test.
目 次
第一章 緒 論
第一節 研究動機與重要性 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 研究問題 5
第四節 研究假設 5
第五節 研究架構 8
第六節 名詞界定 9
第七節 研究限制10
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 跨理論模式11
第二節 身體活動之意涵及其相關影響因素22
第三節 跨理論模式在運動行為改變計劃介入之應用40
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究設計45
第二節 研究對象45
第三節 研究工具46
第四節 運動行為改變計劃介入內容65
第五節 研究步驟 73
第六節 資料處理 76
第四章 研究結果
第一節 個人背景資料 78
第二節 計劃介入前,研究對象之運動階段、社會心理因素以及
身體活動量的分布情形 84
第三節 運動行為改變計劃介入前後之差異 94
第四節 運動行為改變計劃介入之成效106
第五節 教學過程的評量112
第五章 討論
第一節 職場員工規律運動行為118
第二節 運動計劃介入之效果119
第三節 社會心理因素、運動階段及身體活動之關係122
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論126
第二節 建議128
參考文獻
中文部分133
英文部分138
附件
附件一 內容效度專家名單160
附件二 問卷初稿161
附件三 前測問卷169
附件四 教學活動過程評量表176
附件五 職場員工運動行為改變教案(一)177
附件六 職場員工運動行為改變教案(二)199
附件七 職場員工運動行為改變教案(三)212
附件八 熱身減肥關節操225
附件九 健康體能測量之方法、流程及常模228
附件十 介入信件232
附件十一 後測問卷233
表 目 次
表 2-1 跨理論模式的建構12
表2-2 身體活動與心血管疾病的相關研究26
表2-3 身體活動與冠狀動脈心臟病的相關研究27
表 3-1 預試問卷之自覺運動利益項目分析57
表 3-2 預試問卷之自覺運動障礙項目分析59
表 3-3 預試問卷之知覺運動自我效能項目分析60
表 3-4 社會心理因素問卷因素分析之整體解釋之變異量及轉軸後
之數據61
表 3-5 社會心理因素問卷因素分析之轉軸後因素負荷量與共同性63
表 3-6 社會心理因素各分量表內部一致性信度分析表64
表 3-7 各運動階段之課程與活動內容總表70
表 3-8 不同運動階段之單元目標比較72
表 3-9 研究目的、研究問題與統計方法77
表 4-1 個人背景資料的分布與兩組同質性之檢定83
表 4-2 前測運動階段的分布與兩組同質性之檢定85
表 4-3 前測運動社會心理因素與兩組同質性之檢定86
表 4-4 前測兩組自覺運動利益量表各題平均得分之
Hotelling’s T2分析86
表 4-5 前測兩組自覺運動障礙量表各題平均得分之
Hotelling’s T2分析88
表 4-6 前測兩組運動自我效能量表各題平均得分之
Hotelling’s T2分析90
表 4-7 前測身體活動量與兩組同質性之檢定93
表 4-8 實驗組於運動階段前後測之比較94
表 4-9 實驗組於各運動階段前後測之改變95
表 4-10 對照組於運動階段前後測之比較96
表 4-11 對照組於各運動階段前後測之改變97
表4-12 兩組於運動社會心理因素前後測比較99
表4-13 兩組於自覺運動利益量表各題項前後測之比較99
表4-14 兩組於自覺運動障礙量表各題項前後測之比較101
表4-15 兩組於運動自我效能量表各題項前後測之比較102
表4-16 兩組於身體活動量前後測比較105
表4-17 各變項之組內迴歸係數同質性檢定107
表4-18 以兩組前測為共變項之後測共變數分析及調節後之平均值111
表4-19 各單元教學內容推廣性的評價116
表4-20 各單元教學活動對從事規律運動的幫助程度116
表4-21 各單元教學時數的評價116
表4-22 各單元教師教學能力的評價117
表4-23 各單元教學方式的評價117
表4-24 各單元教學活動的整體滿意程度117
表5-1 實驗組前測不同運動階段之運動社會心理因素比較122
表5-2 實驗組前測運動社會心理因素和身體活動量之相關123
表5-3 實驗組運動階段與假日身體活動量之比較124
表5-4 實驗組運動階段與假日中重度身體活動量之比較124
表5-5 實驗組運動階段與三日身體活動量之比較125
表5-6 實驗組運動階段與三日中重度身體活動量之比較125
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