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研究生:黃國銓
研究生(外文):Kuo Chuan Huang
論文名稱:以動力學逆過程探討排球扣球起跳動作
論文名稱(外文):Kinetic and kinematic differences of two volleyball-spiking jumps
指導教授:黃長福黃長福引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chenfu Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:體育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:49
中文關鍵詞:排球扣球踏併跳併腿跳動力學逆過程
外文關鍵詞:Volleyball spikingHop jumpStep-close jumpInverse Dynamic
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目前國內男子排球選手的起跳方式都為踏併跳,女子選手則多採用併腿跳的起跳方式,是否有任何差異存在於這兩種方式之間?而造成男女採用的方式不同,仍需進一步去探討,
本研究的目的為:
(一) 探討併腿跳和踏併跳兩種扣球起跳方式起跳時下肢段關節內
力作用情形並歸論內力作用與運動表現的關係。
(二) 比較男、女在併腿跳和踏併跳的差異,進一步了解男女選手
採用不同起跳方式的緣由。
本研究以大學及高中甲組排球隊員,男、女各8名,共16名為受試者。利用一部Peak高速攝影機(120Hz)和一塊Kistler測力板(600Hz)紀錄受試者以不同扣球起跳方式起跳及著地時,運動學和動力學的變化形,並運用動力學逆過程的方法探討下肢各關節的力學參
數。
併腿跳和踏併跳兩種跳法的比較上,本研究發現踏併跳的髖、膝關節在起跳下肢的離心收縮期的作功量顯著高於併腿跳。踏併跳的髖、膝關節比併腿跳作更多的功,這有助於踏併跳較有效地吸收制動助跑的衝量,也較能減緩制動助跑時下肢段的衝擊。兩種跳法推蹬期下肢髖、膝、踝關節的作功量沒有顯著的差異,由於向心期下肢段關節推蹬向上所作的功沒有顯著差異,因此兩種跳法的跳躍的高度相當接近。由此看來,併腿跳與踏併跳下肢關節力矩作用最大的差別在
於,制動助跑作功的大小。
女生在踏併跳和併腿跳兩種跳法的起跳過程,都以踝關節為最大作用關節,男生在兩種跳法則都是以髖關節為最大的作用關節。男女生在起跳過程下肢段各關節的作用,並沒有因為採用不同的起跳方式而有所改變。因此,若兩種起跳方式跳躍效果(跳躍高度)並沒有太大差別的情形下,在此建議女子選手若能採用制動期下肢段較能緩衝制動衝量的踏併跳應該較為適當。
The volleyball-spiking jumps influence the height of spike and the balance of body in the flight phase. So the spiking jump is the important technique of volleyball spiking. Spike-jumping techniques will varying considerably according to factors as weather a hop jump (the feet step upon the ground simultaneously) or step-close jump (one foot steps upon ground, then the other foot) (Coutts, 1979), and approach speed and lengths of the last stride employed. Researchers have studied the effect of approach speed by designing different numbers of approach steps (Kayambashi, 1977) and last step lengths(Liu & Huang, 2001). Generally, male players prefer step-close jump, and female players prefer hop jump during volleyball-spiking jump take off. Coutts (1979) studied volleyball hop jump and step-close jump during spiking jump takeoff, he only reported the kinetic data and lack of kinematic data. The purpose of this study was to investigate the net muscle moments and works on lower limbs in two different volleyball-spiking jumps by inverse dynamics. A Kistler force platform (600 Hz) was synchronized with a Peak high speed camera (120Hz) to collect the volleyball jumping action. Sixteen volleyball players (8 males and 8 females) were served as subject for the study. The results revealed that No difference was found between two jumps on jump height and push-off time, hop jump have greater ankle and hip moment but a smaller knee moment than the step-close at the start of push-off,and the works done in knee joint during eccentric contraction were greater than ankle and hip joints in both two volleyball jumps. In addition, the hip has a greater work contribution on both hop and step-close jump.
目次………………………………………………………………I
表次…………………………………………………………..…Ⅲ
圖次………………………………………………………..……Ⅲ
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………1
第一節、前言…………………………………………….………1
第二節、問題背景………………………………………….……1
第三節、研究目的……………………………………………….4
第四節、研究範圍……………………………………………….4
第五節、研究限制……………………………………………….5
第六節、名詞解釋 .…………………………………….……..5
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………….……….6
第一節、動力學逆過程……..………………………………….6
第二節、排球扣球運動學分析之相關研究..………………….7
第三節、排球扣球動力學分析之相關研究…………………….9
第四節、起跳動作的動力學逆過程相關研究…………………10
第四節、小結……………………………………………………13
第三章 研究方法與步驟………………………………….…14
第一節、受試者…………………………………….….………14
第二節、實驗時間與地點……………………………….….…14
第三節、實驗儀器與工具…………………….…………….…14
第四節、場地佈置………………………………………………15
第五節、運動學資料的收集方法………………………………16
第六節、動力學資料的收集方法………………………………16
第七節、測力板與攝影機同步的方法…………………………17
第八節、實驗步驟………………………………………………17
第九節、資料處理………………………………………………18
第十節、動力學逆過程之計算..………………………………25
第十一節、統計方法……………………………………………25
第四章、結果與討論……………………………………………26
第一節、 運動學之分析……………………………………… 26
第二節、 動力學之分析……………………………………… 32
第三節、 動力學逆過程的分析…………………………………36
第四節、 結語……………………………………………………44
第五章、結論與建議……………………………………………45
參考文獻…………………………………………………………46
表次
表2-1、兩種著地方式著地時下肢段關節肌肉淨力矩及淨功率分析摘要表……………………………………………………………………12
表3-1、受試者基本資料摘要表…………………………………..14
表3-2、人體肢段參數表…………………………………………..18
表4-1、兩種跳法之運動學參數分析摘要表……………………..26
表4-2、男女受試者運動學之分析摘要表………………………..31
表4-3、兩種跳法之動力學參數分析摘要表………………………33
表4-4、男女生不同跳法的動力學參數分析摘要表……………..34
表4-5、兩種跳法起跳時下肢各關節淨肌肉力矩及作功量分析
摘要表………..……………………………………………………..39
表4-6、男女生不同跳法起跳階段下肢各關節作功量分析摘要表.42
圖次
圖1-1踏併跳流程肢段圖……………………………………………..3
圖1-2併腿跳流程肢段圖……………………………………………..3
圖3-1、實驗場地佈置圖..……………………………………15
圖3-2、反光球黏貼位置圖…………………………………..16
圖3-3、工作人員替受試者量大腿長度………………………17
圖3-4、下肢段各關節力矩作用圖……………………………20
圖3-5、踝關節力矩作用概念圖………………………………21
圖3-6、膝關節力矩作用概念圖……………………………..22
圖3-7、髖關節力矩作用概念圖……………………………..23
圖4-1、一位男性受試者併腿跳與踏併跳起跳階段下肢段關
節度變化圖……………….……………………………………29
圖4-2、一位女性受試者併腿跳與踏併跳起跳階段下肢段關
節度變化圖………….…………………………………………30
圖4-3、兩種跳法之力量-時間曲線圖…….…………………32
圖4-4、併腿跳與踏併跳起跳階段下肢段各關節淨關節
肌肉力矩變化圖…………………….……………….……….37
圖4-5、併腿跳與踏併跳起跳階段下肢段各關節淨關節
肌肉功率變化圖…………………..………………………….38
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