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研究生:陳忠慶
研究生(外文):Trevor Chung-Ching Chen
論文名稱:重複訓練效應對肌肉損傷的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of The Repeated Bout Effect on Muscle Damage
指導教授:謝伸裕謝伸裕引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sandy Shen-Yu Hsieh
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:體育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:離心收縮訓練重複訓練效應超音波影像肌肉損傷
外文關鍵詞:eccentric contraction trainingrepeated bout effectultrasound imaginesmuscle damage
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問題背景:在做完一回合30次的高強度離心運動後的第1-6天時,繼續讓損傷的骨骼肌進行相同一回合離心訓練時,並不會進一步加重肌肉的損傷;但是,在第2-7回合訓練時,所完成的總作功僅為第一回合的57-76%而已,此效應稱為重複訓練效應 (repeated bout effect,RBE)。然而這些研究當時讓損傷肌肉進行重複離心訓練時的負荷可能不足,而未能促使肌肉產生進一步的傷害。但是,肌肉因做運動而引起很明顯的損傷、酸痛時,應該繼續給予多少傷害或酸痛前的強度來做訓練,才不會對肌肉造成進一步的傷害或產生酸痛呢? 研究目的:探討受試者進行一回合30次高強度離心運動之後的第三天時,繼續讓損傷肌肉進行一回合30次不同高強度 (運動前80%、90%、100% MVC的強度)的離心收縮訓練,對肌肉損傷的影響,以找出重複訓練效應強度的上限。方法:以51名大學健康男、女性學生做為受試對象,受試者在正式實驗之前先進行3個不同天次的前測,然後再以肌力值做為配對隨機分派的依據,將受試者分成E100組 (100%,n=12)、E90組 (90%,n=13)、E80組 (80%,n=14) 和控制組 (CON,n=12)。在實驗的第一天,受試者以自己在前測的最大 (100%強度) 等長肌力值,做為其進行第一回合30次最大離心收縮運動 (ECC1),使非慣手的肱二頭肌產生肌肉損傷。另外,E80、E90、E100組的受試者在ECC1後的第3天時,各重複進行一回合30次不同強度 (80%、90% 或100%強度) 的離心收縮訓練 (ECC2)。受試者在ECC1和ECC2之前、後以及在ECC1之後的第1-9天,分別接受:上臂圍 (CIR)、關節活動範圍 (ROM)、最大等長肌力 (MVC)、血液肌酸激酶 (CK)和乳酸脫氫酶 (LDH)的測量。肌肉酸痛的測驗時間,則在ECC1之前以及ECC1之後的第1-9天。超音波影像分析的時間點,安排在ECC1之前、ECC1之後的第2、4、9天。結果:發現不同四組在做完ECC1之後,其肌肉損傷的評估指標 (MVC、ROM、CIR、酸痛、CK、LDH和超音波影像)均在時間上產生顯著的改變 (p<0.05);E80~E100組在ECC1後的第3天時,重複進行一回合不同強度 (80%~100%強度)的離心訓練時,使用間接評估指標看不出會對肌肉造成更進一步的傷害或阻礙其恢復的速度 (p > 0.05)。但是,E100組在ECC2之後,超音波影像顯示肌肉組織受損的面積卻顯著比E80、E90和控制組來得大 (p<0.05)。結論:1.當僅使用肌肉損傷的間接評估指標 (例如MVC、ROM、CIR、CK、LDH)來做為離心收縮訓練效果的評估時,在第1回合的離心訓練之後,繼續讓已經受到損傷和酸痛的肌肉重複一回合80%~100%強度的離心訓練時,看不出有加重或延緩肌肉損傷的修復情形。2.但使用超音波影像來做為肌肉組織傷害的評估時,讓已受到明顯損傷和酸痛的肌肉,繼續進行一回合100%強度的離心收縮訓練時,其超音波影像中的肌肉組織之橫、縱斷面受到損傷的面積均顯著比E80組、E90組和控制組來得明顯 (p<0.05)。這意指著肌肉的「重複訓練效應」上限,可能在90%強度左右。3.本研究建議,未來運動教練在選手發生肌肉損傷、酸痛還未完全恢復之前,應該使用90%以下的強度來做訓練,才不會對損傷、酸痛的肌肉造成進一步的傷害。
關鍵詞:離心收縮訓練、重複訓練效應、超音波影像、肌肉損傷
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that repeating the same bouts of 30 maximal voluntary eccentric contractions at 1 to 6 days or 3 and 6 days after the first maximal eccentric exercise (ECC1) did not cause further muscle damage. This is referred to as the “repeated bout effect”. However, the amount of total work done during each of the subsequent bouts could only reach about 57%-76% of that done during the ECC1. It may be possible that the repeated bout of 30 maximal eccentric contractions was not stressful enough to produce further damage. What if one were to do the subsequent bout of intensive eccentric exercise, at what intensity would this second bout produce no further muscle damage or retard the recovery process? PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of the repeated bout effect after second bout of intensive eccentric exercise (80%, 90%, and 100% of the pre-ECC1 MVC level) on the indicators of muscle damage. METHODS: Fifty-one college-age males and females were randomly assigned into 100% maximal isometric voluntary contraction strength (MVC)(E100; n =12), 90% MVC (E90; n =13), 80% MVC (E80; n =14), and control (CON; n = 12) groups. The initial exercise was 30 maximal eccentric contraction (ECC1) on non-dominant elbow flexors using a dumbbell that was set at 100% of the pre-ECC1 MVC level. Three days after ECC1, the E80, E90, and E100 groups repeated this same exercise of 30 repetitions, but using a dumbbell that was set at 80%, 90%, and 100%, respectively, of the pre-ECC1 MVC level. This second bout was hereafter referred to as ECC2. Upper arm circumference (CIR), range of motion (ROM), MVC, serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were measured before, immediately after, and every 24 hours or 9 consecutive days after ECC1. In the E80, E90, and E100 groups, CIR, ROM, MVC, CK, and LDH were also tested immediately after ECC2. Muscle soreness was assessed before and for 9 consecutive days after ECC1. Ultrasound imagines were taken from the upper arm immediately before ECC1, and at 2, 4, and 9 days after ECC1 for all groups. RESULTS: There were significant changes (p < 0.05) in all criterion measures following ECC1 for all groups. Moreover, the E80 to E100 subjects who repeated the second bout of eccentric contraction training at varying intensities 3 days after ECC1, no further muscle damage was observed when the indirect indicators of muscle damage were used. However, the ultrasound imagine showed a significant increased (p < 0.05) in muscle damaged area after ECC2 for the E100 group when compared to the E80, E90, and CON groups. CONCLUSION: 1.When the indirect indicators of muscle damage (e.g. MVC, ROM, CIR, soreness, CK, LDH) were used for the evaluation of eccentric-training effect after repeating a second bout of eccentric exercise on the damaged muscle, at the intensity of 80~100% pre-ECC1 MVC level, no signs of deterioration or retardation in the recovery process were observed. 2.However, when ultrasound images were used for the evaluation of eccentric-training at 100% of pre-ECC1 MVC level, the damage was much more evident. This suggest that the upper limit of repeated bout effect is approximately at 90% of pre-ECC1 MVC. 3.The results of this study may provide new information and serve as a practical reference to strength training for coaches, athletes and the general public during muscle damage and muscle soreness.
KEY WORDS: eccentric contraction training, repeated bout effect, ultrasound imagines,
muscle damage.
目 次
前序部分:
一、授權書……………………………………………………………i
二、論文口試委員與系主任簽字証書……………………………...ii
三、中文摘要………………………………………………………...iii
四、英文摘要………………………………………………………...iv
五、謝誌……………………………………………………………...v
六、目次………………………………………………………………vi
七、表次………………………………………………………………x
八、圖次………………………………………………………………x
本文部分:
第壹章、緒論
一、前言………………………………………………………………1
二、問題背景………………………………………………………… 3
三、研究目的………………………………………………………… 7
四、研究假設………………………………………………………… 7
五、名詞操作性定義………………………………………………… 7
六、研究限制……………………………………………………… 13
七、研究的重要性………………………………………………… 14
第貳章、文獻探討
一、運動引起肌肉損傷的機轉 …………………………………… 15
二、肌肉受到損傷的證據 ………………………………………… 18
(一)在肌肉組織方面 …………………………………………… 18
(二)在肌肉腫脹方面 …………………………………………… 22
(三)在肌肉酸痛方面 …………………………………………… 28
三、離心運動訓練對重複訓練效應的影響……………………… 35
四、結語 …………………………………………………………… 39
第參章、研究方法
一、受試者………………………………………………………… 41
二、實驗步驟……………………………………………………… 41
三、實驗工具與測驗方法………………………………………… 47
四、實驗控制……………………………………………………… 51
五、統計分析……………………………………………………… 51
第肆章、結果
一、受試者基本資料……………………………………………… 53
二、信度…………………………………………………………… 54
三、在MVC方面………………………………………………… 54
四、在ROM方面………………………………………………… 55
五、在肌肉酸痛方面……………………………………………… 57
六、在上臂圍 (CIR)方面………………………………………… 57
七、在血液生化值 (CK、LDH)方面……………………………… 59
八、在超音波影像分析方面……………………………………… 61
第伍章、討論與結論
一、在MVC方面………………………………………………… 65
二、在ROM方面………………………………………………… 68
三、在肌肉酸痛方面……………………………………………… 69
四、在CIR方面…………………………………………………… 70
五、在血液生化值方面…………………………………………… 72
六、在超音波影像分析方面……………………………………… 75
七、結論與建議…………………………………………………… 76
引用文獻
中文部份…………………………………………………………… 78
英文部份…………………………………………………………… 78
後篇部份:
一、附 錄
附錄一、受試者須知及參與同意書………………………… 93
附錄二、受試者健康情況調查表 …………………………… 95
附錄三、不同四組在不同時段中之MVC變異數分析摘要表
………………………………………………………… 97
附錄四、不同四組在不同時段中之ROM變異數分析摘要表
…………………………………………………………. 97
附錄五、不同四組在不同時段中之肌肉酸痛變異數分析摘要
表……………………………………………………… 97
附錄六、不同四組在不同時段中之CIR-4cm ANOVA摘要
表……………………………………………………… 97
附錄七、不同四組在不同時段中之CIR-8cm ANOVA摘要
表……………………………………………………… 98
附錄八、不同四組在不同時段中之CK ANOVA摘要表…98
附錄九、不同四組在不同時段中之LDH ANOVA摘要表…98
附錄十、不同四組在不同時段中之橫斷面肌肉組織損傷
的ANOVA摘要表..………………………………… 98
附錄十一、不同四組在不同時段中之縱斷面肌肉組織損傷
的ANOVA摘要表..………………………………… 99
二、個人小傳………………………………………………… 100
表 次
表一、受試者基本資料……………………………………… 53
圖 次
圖一、運動引起的肌肉損傷之機制……………………… 16
圖二、實驗流程圖……………………..…………………… 42
圖三、為一名受試者在進行離心收縮訓練時的情形…… 45
圖四、不同四組受試者在不同時段中之MVC的變化情形
………………………………….…………………….. 56
圖五、不同四組受試者在不同時段中之ROM的變化情形
….……………………………….…………..……….. 56
圖六、不同四組受試者在不同時段中之肌肉酸痛的變化情
形..….………………………….…………………….. 58
圖七、不同四組受試者在不同時段中之上臂圍 (CIR-4cm)
的變化情形..………………….…………………….. 58
圖八、不同四組受試者在不同時段中之上臂圍 (CIR-8cm)
的變化情形..………………….…………………….. 59
圖九、不同四組受試者在不同時段中之肌酸激酶 (CK)的變
化情形...……………………………….…………..… 60
圖十、不同四組受試者在不同時段中之乳酸脫氫酶 (LDH)
的變化情形...………………………….…………..… 60
圖十一、不同四組受試者在不同時段中之橫斷面肌肉組織
損傷的情形...………………………….…………..… 62
圖十二、不同四組受試者在不同時段中之縱斷面肌肉組織
損傷的情形...………………………….…………..… 62
圖十三、一位E100受試者在不同時段中之橫段面肌肉組
織的超音波影像…………….………………………. 63
圖十四、一位E100受試者在不同時段中之縱段面肌肉組
織的超音波影像…………….………………………. 63
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