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研究生:黃英哲
研究生(外文):Ying-Che Huang
論文名稱:運動成就目標與賽前狀態焦慮的關係:以目標涉入為主軸之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Relation of Achievement Goals to Precompetitive State Anxiety: A Goal Involvement Centered Study
指導教授:簡曜輝簡曜輝引用關係季力康季力康引用關係
指導教授(外文):Iau-Hoei Chien, Ph. DLikang Chi, Ph. D
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:體育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:成就目標理論目標涉入多向度競賽焦慮
外文關鍵詞:achievement goal theorygoal involvementmulti-dimensional competitive anxiety
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:63
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國立臺灣師範大學體育學系博士學位論文
運動成就目標與賽前狀態焦慮的關係:
以目標涉入為主軸之研究
研究生:黃英哲 指導教授:簡曜輝博士、季力康博士 民國九十一年六月
摘 要
本研究整合Nicholls(1984, 1989)的成就目標理論和Jones(1995)的競賽狀態焦慮控制模式做為理論架構,探討成就目標和賽前狀態焦慮的關係。主要的脈絡是以目標涉入為主軸,探討目標取向和動機氣候對目標涉入的預測力,進而探討目標涉入與能力知覺對控制感(因應能力預期和目標達成預期)和賽前狀態焦慮強度和方向性的影響。
研究參與者為90學年度全國高中籃球聯賽甲級球員共301名,平均年齡為16.76 ±.88歲,其中男球員186名、女球員115名,分別來自16支男子球隊和10支女子球隊。本研究對每一隊都進行兩階段的團體施測,第一階段:選擇每一隊在平時情況下測量「目標取向」、「動機氣候」與「能力知覺」;第二階段:在比賽前一小時測量「目標涉入」、「因應能力預期」、「目標達成預期」和「賽前狀態焦慮的強度和方向性」。經資料蒐集完成,以階層多元迴歸分析和徑路分析進行資料處理後,得到以下幾點主要的發現。
一 、精熟氣候與工作取向能有效預測工作涉入,其中精熟氣候的預測力較高;表
現氣候和自我取向是自我涉入的主要預測變項,其中表現氣候的預測力較高。
二、自我涉入是賽前身體焦慮強度的主要預測變項,顯示球員的賽前身體焦慮強度
隨自我涉入程度增加而提昇。
三、工作涉入和能力知覺是因應能力預期的主要預測變項,其中能力知覺的預測力
較大。因應能力預期能有效預測賽前認知與身體焦慮的強度與方向性。徑路分析的結
果得知工作涉入和能力知覺透過因應能力預期影響賽前認知焦慮與身體焦慮的強度與
方向性,顯示能力知覺和工作涉入愈高的球員,賽前因應能力預期愈高,進而使其賽前
認知與身體焦慮的強度降低並較能將該焦慮強度解釋為有利表現。
四、目標達成預期的主要預測變項依預測力大小依序為工作涉入、能力知覺和自我
涉入。此外,目標達成預期能有效預測賽前認知與身體焦慮的方向性。徑路分析的結果得知工作涉入、自我涉入和能力知覺透過目標達成預期間接影響賽前認知與身體焦慮的方向性,顯示工作涉入、自我涉入和能力知覺愈高的球員,賽前目標達成預期愈高,進而較能將賽前認知與身體焦慮的強度解釋為對表現有利。
本研究根據理論架構與上述的結果進行討論,並針對實際應用和未來研究方向提出一些具體的建議。
關鍵字:成就目標理論、目標涉入、多向度競賽狀態焦慮
The Relation of Achievement Goals to Precompetitive State Anxiety:
A Goal Involvement Centered Study
Ying-Che Huang, Ph. D.
Department of Physical Education
National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan R. O. C.
Dr. Iau-Hoei Chien & Dr. Likang Chi, Advisors
ABSTRACT
This study integrated Nicholls’s (1984, 1989) achievement goal theory and Jones’s (1995) model of debilitative and facilitative competitive state anxiety, which goal involvement was adopted as the pivot to investigate the impact of achievement goal processes on the intensity and direction of precompetitive state anxiety.
Participants were 301 basketball players (males=186, females=115) aged 16.76 ±.88 years recruited from 16 men’s and 10 women’s level-A high school varsity teams. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires in a group setting to measure goal orientation, perceived motivational climate and perceived ability on the general occasion. Furthermore, all players were requested to complete the other battery of inventories to measure goal involvement, sense of control (including expectancies of ability to cope and goal attainment), and intensity and direction of state anxiety approximately one hour before the first game of their team in the first round of High Basketball League in Taiwan. A series of hierarchical multiple-regression analyses and path analysis were conducted and the major
findings were as follows:
1. Perceived mastery climate and task orientation were the predictors of task involvement, which the former predictor emerged stronger prediction on task involvement. Perceived performance climate and ego orientation were the predictors of ego involvement, which the former predictor demonstrated stronger prediction on ego involvement.
2. Ego involvement was the major predictor of the intensity of precompetitive somatic anxiety. Specifically, the players who were higher ego-involved exhibited higher intensity of pre-competitive somatic anxiety.
3. Task involvement and perceived ability significantly predicted the expectance of ability to cope, which the perceived ability showed the higher predictive utility. The expectance of ability to cope significantly predicted the intensity and direction of pre-competitive cognitive and somatic anxiety. The result of path analysis indicated that task involvement and perception of ability indirectly affected direction and intensity of pre-competitive state anxiety through their effect on the expectance of ability to cope. Specifically, the players who displayed higher level of task involvement and perceive ability demonstrated more positive expectance of ability to cope, and then experienced lower intensity of pre-competitive cognitive and somatic anxiety and tended to interpret their intensity of anxiety as facilitative to performance.
4. Task involvement, ego involvement and perceived ability were the predictors of expectance of goal attainment. Furthermore, the expectance of goal attainment significantly predicted the direction of pre-competitive cognitive and somatic anxiety. The result of path analysis emerged that task involvement, ego involvement and perceived ability indirectly affected the direction of precompetitive state anxiety through their impact on the expectance of goal attainment. Specifically, the players who demonstrated higher level of task-involvement, ego-involvement and perceive ability exhibited more positive expectance of ability to cope, and then tended to interpret their intensity of precompetitive cognitive and somatic anxiety as facilitative to performance.
Discussions are provided in term of the findings and theoretical framework. Practical implication and future research directions are also recommended.
Key words: achievement goal theory, goal involvement, and multi-dimensional competitive anxiety
目 次
授權書----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅰ
口試委員簽字證書-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅱ
誌 謝----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅲ
中文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅳ
英文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅵ
目 次----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅷ
表 次----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅹ
圖 次----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ⅩⅠ
第一章 緒 論------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
第一節 問題背景--------------------------------------------------------------- 1
第二節 研究問題--------------------------------------------------------------- 5
第三節 名詞操作性定義------------------------------------------------------ 6
第二章 文獻探討--------------------------------------------------------------- 9
第一節 成就目標理論--------------------------------------------------------- 9
第二節 競賽狀態焦慮--------------------------------------------------------- 15
第三節 成就目標與能力知覺對競賽狀態焦慮的影響------------------ 25
第四節 研究假設--------------------------------------------------------------- 34
第三章 研究方法--------------------------------------------------------------- 35
第一節 研究的概念架構------------------------------------------------------ 35
第二節 參與者------------------------------------------------------------------ 36
第三節 研究工具--------------------------------------------------------------- 37
第四節 實施程序--------------------------------------------------------------- 45
第五節 資料處理--------------------------------------------------------------- 50
第四章 結 果------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
第一節 基本描述統計和簡單相關------------------------------------------ 51
第二節 目標取向與動機氣候對目標涉入的預測------------------------ 53
第三節 控制感對賽前狀態焦慮的預測------------------------------------ 56
第四節 目標涉入和能力知覺對控制感和賽前狀態焦慮的預測------ 61
第五節 成就目標歷程和能力知覺透過控制感影響賽前狀態焦慮
的因果模式------------------------------------------------------------ 68
第五章 討 論------------------------------------------------------------------ 71
第一節 目標取向與動機氣候對目標涉入的預測------------------------ 71
第二節 控制感對賽前狀態焦慮的預測------------------------------------ 72
第三節 目標涉入和能力知覺對控制感和賽前狀態焦慮的預測------ 73
第四節 成就目標歷程和能力知覺透過控制感影響賽前狀態焦慮
的因果模式------------------------------------------------------------ 75
第五節 目標涉入測量的問題------------------------------------------------ 76
第六章 結論與建議------------------------------------------------------------ 79
第一節 結論--------------------------------------------------------------------- 79
第二節 建議--------------------------------------------------------------------- 80
參考文獻----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 85
註 釋------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 96
附錄一 運動目標取向量表--------------------------------------------------- 97
附錄二 運動動機氣候量表--------------------------------------------------- 98
附錄三 預試版運動目標涉入量表------------------------------------------ 100
附錄四 運動目標涉入量表--------------------------------------------------- 102
附錄五 籃球能力知覺量表--------------------------------------------------- 103
附錄六 因應能力預期量表--------------------------------------------------- 104
附錄七 目標達成預期量表--------------------------------------------------- 105
附錄八 改編版賽前狀態焦慮量表------------------------------------------ 106
附錄九 徵求教練同意信件--------------------------------------------------- 107
表 次
表1 運動成就目標、能力知覺與競賽焦慮關係研究文獻摘要表------------------- 32
表2 各校參與者的人數分配及相關背景資料------------------------------------------- 36
表3 運動目標涉入量表因素分析與信度分析結果摘要表---------------------------- 42
表4 全體參與者各變項上的描述統計---------------------------------------------------- 51
表5 各變項間的簡單相關值矩陣---------------------------------------------------------- 52
表6 工作取向和精熟氣候預測工作涉入的階層多元迴歸分析結果---------------- 54
表7 自我取向和表現氣候預測自我涉入的階層多元迴歸分析結果--------------- 55
表8 因應能力預期和目標達成預期對賽前認知焦慮強度預測的階層多元
迴歸分析結果---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
表9 因應能力預期和目標達成預期對賽前身體焦慮強度預測的階層多元
迴歸分析結果---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 58
表10 因應能力預期和目標達成預期對賽前認知焦慮方向性預測的階層多
元迴歸分析結果------------------------------------------------------------------------- 59
表11 因應能力預期和目標達成預期對賽前身體焦慮方向性預測的階層多
元迴歸分析結果------------------------------------------------------------------------- 60
表12 目標涉入和能力知覺預測因應能力預期的階層多元迴歸分析結果---------- 62
表13 目標涉入和能力知覺預測目標達成預期的階層多元迴歸分析結果---------- 63
表14 目標涉入和能力知覺預測賽前認知焦慮強度的階層多元迴歸分析結果--- 64
表15 目標涉入和能力知覺預測賽前身體焦慮強度的階層多元迴歸分析結果--- 65
表16 目標涉入和能力知覺預測賽前認知焦慮方向性的階層多元迴歸分析結果- 66
表17 目標涉入和能力知覺預測賽前身體焦慮方向性的階層多元迴歸分析結果- 67
圖 次
圖1 妨害性與促進性競賽狀態焦慮的控制模式--------------------------------------- 23
圖2 本研究之子概念架構一原型--------------------------------------------------------- 35
圖3 本研究之子概念架構二原型--------------------------------------------------------- 35
圖4 本研究之主概念架構原型------------------------------------------------------------ 36
圖5 施測實施流程--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 50
圖6 成就目標歷程和能力知覺透過控制感影響賽前狀態焦慮的徑路分析圖--- 70
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