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研究生:牟鍾福
研究生(外文):Mo Chung-Fu
論文名稱:國中體育教師組織正義與組織信任對組織承諾影響之研究
指導教授:吳清基吳清基引用關係鄭志富鄭志富引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:體育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:330
中文關鍵詞:體育教師組織正義組織信任組織承諾
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摘 要
本研究旨在藉由理論探討與實證研究分析,驗證國民中學體育教師組織正義、組織信任與組織承諾之因果模式與相互關係,並探討國民中學體育教師組織正義、組織信任、組織承諾的現況與差異情形。
本研究在理論探討方面,採用文獻分析法,探究組織正義、組織信任、組織承諾之理論與實證研究,以綜合歸納本研究之假設模式。在實證研究方面,以問卷調查法與半結構式專家訪談法進行探討。問卷調查工具,係採用研究者修訂之量表,並以台灣地區500位國民中學體育教師為樣本,進行問卷調查。所蒐集到的資料,經線性結構關係模式、因素分析、變異數分析與描述性統計方法分析結果,配合專家訪談發現,在本研究的限制之內,得到以下結論:
一、在國民中學體育教師組織正義方面
(一)就整體而言,國民中學體育教師組織正義量表共包含兩個分析層次,即學校正義與部門正義;且部門正義尚可分為程序正義與分配正義構面。受試者在這三個量表之得分,屬於中上程度。其中尤以程序正義之得分最高,其次為分配正義,而以學校正義之得分最低。
(二)就差異比較而言,不同年齡、學校規模體育教師對學校正義的評價有顯著差異;不同地區學校體育教師對部門正義的評價亦有顯著差異存在。
二、在國民中學體育教師組織信任方面
(一)就整體而言,國民中學體育教師組織信任量表亦包含兩個分析層次,即學校信任與部門信任;且部門信任尚可分為主管信任與同事信任構面。受試者在這三個量表之得分,屬於中上程度。其中尤以主管信任之得分最高,同事信任次之,而以學校信任之得分最低。
(二)就差異比較而言,不同規模學校體育教師對學校信任的評價有顯著差異;且不同地區與規模學校體育教師對部門信任的評價,亦有顯著差異存在。
三、在國民中學體育教師組織承諾方面
(一)就整體而言,國民中學體育教師組織承諾量表共可分為三個構面,包括:組織認同、留職傾向與努力意願。受試者在這三個構面之得分,亦屬中上的程度。其中尤以努力意願之得分最高;其次為組織認同;而以留職傾向之得分最低。
(二)就差異比較而言,不同年齡、婚姻狀況、學歷、服務年資、學校規模體育教師在組織承諾各構面之得分,均達顯著差異;不同性別、行政職務與學校地區體育教師,則無顯著差異存在。且經F檢定及差異比較結果得知,不同背景變項體育教師在組織承諾得分之差異來源,均為留職傾向構面。
四、在組織正義、組織信任與組織承諾假設模式之驗證方面
本研究為瞭解國民中學體育教師組織正義、組織信任與組織承諾等各變項之因果模式與相互關係,因此經由理論與實證研究建構假設模式,並採用線性結構關係模式(LISREL)及其適合度評量指標(X2、RMSEA、GFI、AGFI、CFI、RMR、standardized RMR),修正與驗證假設模式。結果發現本研究再修正後之假設模式,為適合度較佳的模式。茲將本模式主要研究結果敘述如下:
(一)國民中學體育教師學校正義對學校信任有顯著直接的正面影響。
(二)國民中學體育教師學校正義對部門正義有顯著直接的正面影響。
(三)國民中學體育教師學校信任對部門信任有顯著直接的正面影響。
(四)國民中學體育教師學校正義對組織承諾沒有顯著直接的正面影響。
(五)國民中學體育教師學校信任對組織承諾有顯著直接的正面影響。
(六)國民中學體育教師部門正義對部門信任有顯著直接的正面影響。
(七)國民中學體育教師部門正義對組織承諾沒有顯著直接的正面影響。
(八)國民中學體育教師部門信任對組織承諾有顯著直接的正面影響。
五、在學者專家實地訪談方面
本研究為補充文獻探討與問卷調查之不足,特別針對體育行政部門主管、學者專家與國民中學校長共八人,進行半結構式訪談。
專家訪談的內容主要包含:國民中學體育教師組織正義、組織信任、組織承諾的現況、影響因素、問題與原因、發展方向與建議。
本研究經由專家訪談結果發現,國民中學體育教師組織正義的現況,在社會價值觀方面,比較不受到重視;在實質回饋方面,與其他教師差異不大;惟不同體育教師間有相當大的個別差異。體育教師的組織信任,由於和人際互動有關,因此亦有較大的差異性;惟在組織承諾方面,普遍而言,則仍有較大的改善空間。
國民中學體育教師組織正義、組織信任與組織承諾的影響因素,主要包含:社會價值觀、政府決策、法令制度、家長、社區、學校組織環境、教師人際互動、體育教師本身因素、師資培育機構,以及上述因素的交互影響。
在問題與原因方面,主要包含:整體與觀念、法令制度、學校組織、體育教師與其他問題等五個層面。學者專家並分別針對上述問題與原因,提出改善國民中學體育教師組織正義、組織信任、組織承諾的方向與建議。學者專家們提供了多元而豐富的思考方向,不過總結而言,學者專家幾乎均一致強調,除社會價值觀與法令制度等外部因素外,體育教師需從本身做起,回歸體育的本質,重視體育課程與教學,並且自我要求、自我精進,方為提升組織正義、組織信任與組織承諾的根本之道。
最後,本研究依據文獻探討與實證研究結果,提出相關建議,作為後續研究者與有關單位之參考。
關鍵詞:體育教師、組織正義、組織信任、組織承諾
目 錄
第一章 緒 論
第一節 研究背景與動機 …………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的與問題 …………………………………………… 6
第三節 研究範圍與限制 …………………………………………… 7
第四節 名詞解釋 …………………………………………………… 8
第五節 研究方法與步驟 …………………………………………… 10
第二章 組織正義的理論與研究
第一節 組織正義的意義 …………………………………………… 18
第二節 分配正義 …………………………………………………… 22
第三節 程序正義 …………………………………………………… 28
第四節 人際正義 …………………………………………………… 36
第五節 系統正義 …………………………………………………… 39
第三章 組織信任的理論與研究
第一節 組織信任的意義 …………………………………………… 49
第二節 組織信任的分析層次 ……………………………………… 58
第三節 組織信任的類型 …………………………………………… 64
第四節 組織信任的構面 …………………………………………… 74
第四章 組織承諾的理論與研究
第一節 組織承諾的意義 …………………………………………… 86
第二節 組織承諾的分纇 …………………………………………… 93
第三節 組織承諾的理論模式 ……………………………………… 102
第四節 組織承諾與背景變項的關係 ……………………………… 117
第五章 組織正義、組織信任與組織承諾之關係
第一節 組織正義與組織信任 ……………………………………… 146
第二節 組織正義與組織承諾 ……………………………………… 148
第三節 組織信任與組織承諾 ……………………………………… 150
第四節 組織正義、組織信任與組織承諾 ………………………… 151
第五節 研究假設 …………………………………………………… 152
第六章 實證研究設計與實施
第一節 實證研究設計 ……………………………………………… 153
第二節 研究對象 …………………………………………………… 156
第三節 研究工具 …………………………………………………… 157
第四節 資料處理 …………………………………………………… 163
第七章 結果與討論
第一節 樣本特性分析 ……………………………………………… 175
第二節 量表之因素分析 …………………………………………… 178
第三節 假設模式之驗證 …………………………………………… 188
第四節 各變項之變異數分析 ……………………………………… 204
第五節 問卷調查結果綜合討論 …………………………………… 235
第六節 專家訪談結果與討論 ……………………………………… 254
第八章 結論與建議
第一節 結 論 ……………………………………………………… 265
第二節 建 議 ……………………………………………………… 269
第三節 研究的重要性 ……………………………………………… 273
參考文獻
一、中文部分 ………………………………………………………… 277
二、英文部分 ………………………………………………………… 279
附 錄
附錄一 預試問卷 …………………………………………………… 307
附錄二 正式問卷 …………………………………………………… 313
附錄三 組織正義量表項目分析摘要表 …………………………… 319
附錄四 組織信任量表項目分析摘要表 …………………………… 322
附錄五 組織承諾量表項目分析摘要表 …………………………… 324
附錄六 專家訪談綱要表 …………………………………………… 326
附錄七 專家訪談逐字稿 ……………………………………………… 331
表 目 錄
表2-1 組織正義理論的分類 …………………………………………… 20
表2-2 Adams的公平理論 ……………………………………………… 24
表2-3 結果、程序與系統正義層次的標準 …………………………… 45
表3-1 信任的定義 ……………………………………………………… 52
表3-2 信任者與被信任者文獻的整理 ………………………………… 59
表3-3 信任之分類 ……………………………………………………… 65
表3-4 組織信任的構面 ………………………………………………… 77
表5-1 組織承諾之相關研究彙整表 …………………………………… 134
表6-1 組織正義量表信度分析摘要表 ………………………………… 161
表6-2 組織信任量表信度分析摘要表 ………………………………… 162
表6-3 組織承諾量表信度分析摘要表 ………………………………… 162
表6-4 假設模式的潛在變項與觀察變項 ……………………………… 169
表6-5 統計模式適合度指標及模式適配程度表 ……………………… 172
表7-1 樣本性別分配統計表 …………………………………………… 173
表7-2 樣本年齡分配統計表……………………………………………… 174
表7-3 樣本婚姻分配統計表……………………………………………… 174
表7-4 樣本學歷分配統計表……………………………………………… 175
表7-5 樣本服務年資分配統計表………………………………………… 175
表7-6 樣本現職年資分配統計表………………………………………… 176
表7-7 樣本居住地區分配統計表………………………………………… 176
表7-8 樣本學校規模分配統計表………………………………………… 176
表7-9 組織正義因素分析摘要表………………………………………… 178
表7-10 分配正義因素負荷量統計表……………………………………… 179
表7-11 程序正義因素負荷量統計表……………………………………… 180
表7-12 系統正義因素負荷量統計表……………………………………… 181
表7-13 組織信任因素分析摘要表………………………………………… 182
表7-14 主管信任因素負荷量統計表……………………………………… 183
表7-15 學校信任因素負荷量統計表……………………………………… 184
表7-16 同事信任因素負荷量統計表……………………………………… 185
表7-17 組織承諾因素分析摘要表………………………………………… 185
表7-18 組識認同因素負荷量統計表……………………………………… 186
表7-19 留職傾向因素負荷量統計表……………………………………… 187
表7-20 努力意願因素負荷量統計表……………………………………… 187
表7-21 量表資料分析統計符號表………………………………………… 189
表7-22 觀察變項之平均數、標準差、偏態與峰度係數表……………… 190
表7-23 本研究之共變數矩陣……………………………………………… 190
表7-24 修改後模式量表資料分析統計符號表…………………………… 195
表7-25 假設與修正模式參數估計值摘要表……………………………… 198
表7-26 性別在學校正義與學校信任之變異數分析摘要表……………… 203
表7-27 年齡在學校正義與學校信任之變異數分析摘要表……………… 204
表7-28 婚姻狀況在學校正義與學校信任之變異數分析摘要表………… 205
表7-29 學歷在學校正義與學校信任之變異數分析摘要表……………… 206
表7-30 服務年資在學校正義與學校信任之變異數分析摘要表………… 207
表7-31 行政職務在學校正義與學校信任之變異數分析摘要表………… 208
表7-32 學校地區在學校正義與學校信任之變異數分析摘要表………… 209
表7-33 學校規模在學校正義與學校信任之變異數分析摘要表………… 210
表7-34 性別在部門正義之變異數分析摘要表…………………………… 211
表7-35 年齡在部門正義之變異數分析摘要表…………………………… 212
表7-36 婚姻狀況在部門正義之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 213
表7-37 學歷在部門正義之變異數分析摘要表…………………………… 214
表7-38 服務年資在部門正義之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 215
表7-39 行政職務在部門正義之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 216
表7-40 學校地區在部門正義之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 217
表7-41 學校規模在部門正義之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 218
表7-42 性別在部門信任之變異數分析摘要表…………………………… 219
表7-43 年齡在部門信任之變異數分析摘要表…………………………… 220
表7-44 婚姻狀況在部門信任之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 221
表7-45 學歷在部門信任之變異數分析摘要表…………………………… 222
表7-46 服務年資在部門信任之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 223
表7-47 行政職務在部門信任之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 224
表7-48 學校地區在部門信任之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 225
表7-49 學校規模在部門信任之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 226
表7-50 性別在組織承諾之變異數分析摘要表…………………………… 227
表7-51 年齡在組織承諾之變異數分析摘要表…………………………… 228
表7-52 婚姻狀況在組織承諾之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 229
表7-53 學歷在組織承諾之變異數分析摘要表…………………………… 230
表7-54 服務年資在組織承諾之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 231
表7-55 行政職務在組織承諾之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 232
表7-56 學校所在地區在組織承諾之變異數分析摘要表………………… 233
表7-57 學校規模在組織承諾之變異數分析摘要表……………………… 234
圖 目 錄
圖1-1 研究架構圖 ……………………………………………………… 11
圖1-2 研究流程圖 ……………………………………………………… 15
圖2-1 組織正義的演繹觀點 …………………………………………… 41
圖2-2 組織正義的歸納觀點 …………………………………………… 42
圖2-3 組織信任的多重構面 …………………………………………… 63
圖4-1 Steers的組織承諾「前因後果模式」理論圖 ………………… 103
圖4-2 Staw 的組織承諾「形成模式」理論圖 ………………………… 104
圖4-3 Stevens, Beyer and Trice 的組織承諾角色知覺理論圖 …… 106
圖4-4 Mowday, Porter and Steers的組織承諾前因後果理論模式 … 107
圖4-5 Fishbein 的組織承諾行為意圖模式圖 ………………………… 109
圖4-6 Wiener 的組織承諾形成模式理論圖 …………………………… 110
圖4-7 Morris and Sherman之多元預測模式理論圖 ………………… 112
圖4-8 黃國隆教授之組織承諾模型 …………………………………… 113
圖4-9 Reyes的教師組織承諾模式 …………………………………… 115
圖4-10 組織承諾之前因、後果及相關變項因素圖 …………………… 116
圖6-1 LISREL假設模式圖 …………………………………………… 167
圖7-1 組織承諾假設模式(一)…………………………………………… 192
圖7-2 組織承諾假設模式(二)…………………………………………… 194
圖7-3 組織正義、組織信任與組織承諾假設模式圖…………………… 200
圖7-4 組織正義、組織信任與組織承諾修正模式圖…………………… 201
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