跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.233.217.106) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/14 14:04
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳祖健
論文名稱:傳染性胰臟壞死病毒與鋅、鎘對石斑魚之致病機制
論文名稱(外文):Interactive effects of zinc or cadmium exposure and IPNV infection on the pathogenesis in grouper
指導教授:周信佑周信佑引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:傳染性胰臟壞死病毒NBT鎘染色石斑魚免疫染色
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:561
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
傳染性胰臟壞死病毒(Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, IPNV)普遍存在本省多種養殖魚類,雖然本省所分離出之IPN病毒株病原性不高,但是以往的研究結果顯示,逆境因子(鹽度以及重金屬)會提高石班魚對IPN病毒之感受性,進而引發高死亡率。因此,本論文以分離自虹鱒之IPN病毒,T42G為病原體,探討IPN病毒和鋅鎘重金屬對石斑魚之致病機制。
首先觀察IPN病毒與鋅、鎘重金屬交互作用對石斑魚組織病理變化之影響,結果發現IPN病毒浸泡組石斑魚最明顯的組織病理變化出現在胰臟,感染第十二天檢體的胰臟腺泡細胞,呈現局部性壞死及炎症細胞的浸潤,在壞死區並可觀察到包涵體樣構造;在腎臟可觀察到腎小管的上皮細胞壞死;而鰓等其他臟器則無明顯病變發生。鋅、鎘重金屬處理所造成的病變情形相似,以鰓最為嚴重,鰓出現上皮肥大、增生、上提與黏液細胞增生、鰓絲融合及血竇形成等病變情形;重金屬浸泡也會造成石斑魚腎小管上皮細胞的壞死,肝細胞水腫、萎縮及壞死等傷害,但在胰臟卻未觀察到明顯的病變。病毒和重金屬交互作用時對石斑魚的影響,在於各臟器出現病變的時間較單一處理組魚提前,其中以胰臟病變提早在第六或第八天出現最為明顯,且胰臟病變的檢體數也有增加的現象。顯示,重金屬與IPN病毒共同作用確實會提高石班魚各臟器病變的發生率,進而引發魚體死亡。
以T42G特異性抗體利用DAB呈色之免疫染色結果顯示,IPN病毒感染之石斑魚,尤其是和重金屬交互處理後之石斑魚的鰓、肝、胰、腸、腎、脾等臟器中,皆有病毒的存在,顯示IPN病毒在石斑魚體內會造成全身性的感染。
以QAI金屬染色觀察,鋅在細胞內呈藍紫色,而鎘則是呈現紅色。進而以此染色法觀察鋅、鎘處理組之石斑魚體內重金屬離子分佈情形,結果發現對照組和鋅處理組魚的肝、腎、脾、鰓、肌肉等所有臟器均呈現藍紫色的反應,顯示一般魚體內原就有相當含量的鋅存在。而鎘處理後,除了在魚的一級鰓薄板的骨質部分和肝臟血管周圍有紅色的呈色反應,其他部分都呈現藍紫色。觀察IPN病毒與重金屬交互作用組石斑魚的重金屬分布情形,結果和單一重金屬處理組結果並無差別,顯示病毒並不影響重金屬在魚體內的蓄積。
以病毒在分離檢測IPN病毒在石斑魚體內各臟器的增殖情形,結果發現所有組別的病毒檢出率均以後腎最高,胰臟次之,而各組之間(單一病毒處理和病毒重金屬交互處理)在檢出率和病毒力價並無差異,顯示重金屬與病毒交互作用並不影響病毒在魚體內的增殖。
最後以NBT染色法測定頭腎細胞之胞內超氧離子的產生情形,藉以分析IPN病毒與重金屬對石斑魚頭腎細胞吞噬活性之影響,結果發現病毒處理組魚頭腎的吞噬活性相較於對照組魚,有提高的現象;而重金屬(尤其是鎘處理)與病毒交互作用明顯會抑制頭腎細胞超氧離子的產生。

摘要……………………………………………………………………………I
前言……………………………………………………………………………1
文獻整理………………………………………………………………………3
一、傳染性胰臟壞死病毒之簡介……………………………………………3
二、重金屬的污染……………………………………………………………6
三、重金屬染色………………………………………………………………10
四、魚類的免疫系統…………………………………………………………11
材料與方法……………………………………………………………………13
一、實驗材料…………………………………………………………………13
(一)實驗用魚…………………………………………………………………13
(二)細胞株繼代培養…………………………………………………………13
(三)IPN病毒…………………………………………………………………15
(四)重金屬貯備溶液…………………………………………………………15
(五)重金屬染劑OAI(2-(8-quinolylazo)-4,5-diphenylimidazole)之合成與配製…………………………………………………………………………15
二、實驗方法………………………………………………………………..16
(一)IPN病毒與鋅、鎘重金屬交互作用對石斑魚組織病理變化之影響………………………………………………………………………………18
(二)以免疫化學染色法觀察IPN病毒在石斑魚體內各臟器之感染情形………………………………………………………………………………18
1.免疫化學染色法特異性之確認……………………………………………18
2.IPN病毒在石斑魚各臟器之分佈情形……………………………………19
(三)以QAI金屬染色法觀察重金屬在石斑魚體內各臟器之分佈情
形………………………………………………………………………………19
1.鋅、鎘離子在QAI金屬染色後之呈色反應………………………………19
2.鋅、鎘離子在石斑魚各臟之分部情形……………………………………19
(四)重金屬對IPN病毒在石斑魚體內增殖情形之影響……………………20
1.實驗處理與採樣……………………………………………………………20
2.病毒再分離…………………………………………………………………20
3.病毒力價測定………………………………………………………………20
(五)IPN病毒與重金屬對石斑魚頭腎細胞吞噬活性之影響………………21
1.實驗處理與採樣……………………………………………………………21
2.頭腎細胞吞噬活性之分析…………………………………………………21
結果……………………………………………………………………………23
一、IPN病毒與鋅、鎘重金屬交互作用對石斑魚組織病理變化之影響……………………………………………………………………………23
二、以免疫化學染色法觀察IPN病毒在石斑魚體內各臟器之感染情形…24
三、以QAI金屬染色法觀察重金屬在石斑魚體內各臟器之分佈情形……25
四、重金屬對IPN病毒在石斑魚體內增殖情形之影響……………………26
五、IPN病毒與重金屬對石斑魚頭腎細胞吞噬活性之影響………………26
討論……………………………………………………………………………27
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………32
圖表…………………………………………………………………………44
附錄……………………………………………………………………………61

李錦池、張嵩林、洪正中(1983)。臺灣省水污染物質中重金屬調查及管制。
工業污染防制。5:1-9
洪楚璋、郭崇義、羅美蓮、陳慧敏(1982)。臺灣西岸貝類累積重金屬因子之研究。
陳弘成、林明男(1989)。污染地區水生生物體內重金屬含量之測定。環境保護與生態保育研討會專刊24號。
陳弘成(1995)。台灣綠牡蠣之研究。
陳志成(1989)。利用RNaseT1解圖譜方法分析感染性胰臟壞死病毒之演化關係。國立台灣大學動物研究所碩士論文。
張素容(1995)。四種重金屬影響文蛤對文蛤病毒感受性之研究。國立台灣海洋大學碩士論文。
張嵩林(1991)。台灣沿海養殖水質監視調查及研究。台灣省環保處。頁41。
張明暉(1980)。氯化鎘對小白鼠骨中鹼性和酸性磷酸醋解鋂之影響。國立台灣大學碩士論文。
梁志遠(1976)。鑲點石斑養殖之初步試驗。中國水產。279:21-24。
許晉榮(1999)。魚苗生產過程中的殘食。中國水產。564:3-11。
連姿雯(2000)。太平洋白蝦感染桃拉症病毒後血球之分析。國立台灣大學碩士論文。
彭翠儀(1998)。重金屬及鹽度逆境因子影響石斑魚對傳染性胰臟壞死病毒之感受性。國立台灣海洋大學碩士論文。
黃政鵬(1999)。現在土壤重金屬去除之研究。元智大學碩士論文
楊喜男(1995)。銅、鎘及鋅影響之急慢性毒性研究。
廖一久(1996)。生物技術在台灣水產養殖扮演的角色。福壽新雜誌。
Anderson, D. P. (1990). Immunological indicators: Effect of environmental stress on immune protection and disease outbreak. American fisheries society symposium, 8:38-50.
Bengtsson, L, S. Fleischer, G. Lindmark and W. Ripl (1975). Lake Trummen Restoration Project. I. Water and Sediment Chemistry. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung Limnologie, 19:1080-1087.
Bengt-Erik, B. (1975). Vertebral damage in fish induced by pollutants. In: Koeman. H., and J. J. T. W. A. Strik (eds.) Sublethal effects of toxic chemicals on aquatic animals. Elsevier Sci. Publ. Co., New York, pp. 23-30.
Blainey, J. D., R. G. Adams, D. B. Brewer and T. C. Harvey (1980). Cadmium-induced osteomalacia. Br. J. Ind. Med., 37:278-284.
Blazer, V. S. (1991). Piscine macrophage function and nutritional influences: a review. J. Aquat. Anim. Health, 3:77-86.
Bonami, J. R., F. Cousserans, M. Weppe and B. J. Hill (1983). Mortalities in hatchery-reared sea bass fry associated with a birnavirus. Bull. Eur. Assoc. Fish Pathol., 3:41.
Castric, J., F. Baudin-Laurencin, M. F. Coustanx and M. Auffret (1987). Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, Ab serotype, from and epizootic in farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. Aquaculture, 67:117-126.
Caswell-Reno, P., P. W. Reno and B. L. Nicholson (1986). Monoclonal antibodies to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus: Analysis of viral epitopes and comparison of different isolates. J. Gen. Virol., 67:2193-2205.
Caswell-Reno, P., V. Lipipun, P. W. Reno, B. L. Nicholson (1989). Use of a group-reactive and other monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme immunodot assay for identification and presumptive serotyping of aquatic birnaviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol., 27:1924-1929.
Chen, S. N., S. C. Chi, J. J. Guu, J. C. Chen and G. H. Kou (1984). Pathogenicity of birnavirus isolated from loach (Misgunus angnillicanbulatus). CoA Fisherise series no. 10 fish disease research (VI), 6-11.
Christie, K. E, L. S. Havarstein, H. O. Djupvik and C. Endresen (1988). Characterization of a new serotype of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from Atlantic salmon. Arch. Virol., 103:167-177.
Christie, K. E, S. Ness and H. O. Djupvik (1990). Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Norway: partial serotyping by monoclonal antibodies. J. Fish Dis., 13:323-327.
Cohen, J., A. Poinsard and R. Scherrer (1973). Physiochemical and morphological features of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. J. Gen. Virol., 21:485-498.
Chou, H. Y., C. F. Lo, M. C. Tung, C. H. Wang, H. Fukuda and T. Sano (1993) The general characteristics of a birnavirus isolated from cultured loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) in Taiwan. Gyobyo Kenkyu, 28:1-7
Dobos, P. (1976). Size and structure of the genome of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Nucleic Acids Res., 3:1903-1924
Dobos, P. (1977). Virus-specific protein synthesis in cells infected by infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. J. Virol., 21:242-258
Dobos, P., R. Hallett, D. T. C. Kells, O. Sorensen and D. Rowe (1977). Biophysical studies of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. J. Virol., 22:150-159
Dobos, P. and K. Rowe (1977). Peptide map comparison of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus-suspecific polypeptides. J. Virol., 24:805-820
Dobos, P., B. J. Hill, R. Hallett, D. T. C. Kells, H. Becht and D. Teninges (1979). Biophysical and biochemical characterization of five animal viruses with bisegmented double-stranded RNA genomes. J. Virol., 32:593-605
Dobos, P. and T. E. Roberts (1983). The molecular biology of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus: a review. Can. J. Microbiol., 29:377-384
Dou Mm. J., C. H. Ke, J. Y. Yang, J. G. Lo and G. J. Yih (1987). Monitoring of the heavy metals on western coast and estuarine of Taiwan. Chemistry (The Chinese Chem. Soc., Taiwan hina), 47:283-291.
Felts, P. A. and A. G. Heath (1984). Interactions of temperature and sublethal environmental copper exposure on the energy metabolism of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Ratinesque. J. Fish Biol., 25: 445-453.
Ellis, A. E. (1989). The immunology of teleosts. In: Roberts, R. F. (ed.) Fish pathology. Bailliere Tindall, London, England, pp. 137-152.
Gardne, G. R. and P. P. Yevich (1970). Histological and hematological responses of an estuarine teteost to cadmium. Journal of the fisheries research board od Canada, 27: 2185-219.
Gill, T. S. and J. C. Pant (1983). Cadmium toxicity: inducement of changes in blood and tissue metabolites in fish. Toxicol Lett., 18:195-200.
Gupta, S. K. and V. Sundararaman (1990). Biological response of earthworm Pheretima posthuma to inorganic cadmium. Indian J. Exp. Bio., 28:71-73.
Handy, R. D. and F. B. Eddy (1990). The interactions between the surface of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and waterborne metal toxicants. Funct. Ecol., 4:385-392.
Hardy, R. W., C. V. Sullivan and A. M. Koziol (1987). Absorption, body distribution, and excretion of dietary zinc by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Fish Physiol. Biochem., 3:133-143.
Harris, E. D. (1991). Biological monitoring of iron, zinc and copper. In: Dillon, H. K. and M. H. Ho (eds.) Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Chemicals: Metal. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 175-176.
Havarstein, L. S., P. M. Aasjord, S. Ness and C. Endersen (1988). Purification and partial characterization of an IgM-like serum immunoglobulin from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Dev. Comp. Immunol., 12:773-785.
Heath, A.G. (1987). Water pollution and fish physiology. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Hedrick, R. P., J. L. Fryer, S. N. Chen and G. H. Kou (1983). Characteristics of four birnavirus isolated from fish in Taiwan. Fish Pathology., 18:91-97.
Hepher, B. (1988) Nutrition of pond fishes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, New York, pp. 388.
Hill, B. J. And K. Way (1983). Serological classification of fish and shellfish birnaviruses. In: Abstracts of First International Conference of the European Association of Fish Pathologists. pp. 10.
Hill, B. J. and K. Way (1988). Proposed standardization of the serological classification of aquatic birnaviruses. In: Conference handbook, International fish health conference, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 151.
Hsu, Y. L., B. S. Chen and J. L. Wu. (1989). Comparison of RNAs and polypeptides of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolates from eel and rainbow trout. J. Gen. Virol., 70:2233-2239
Hsu, Y. L., J. L. Hong, M. F. Wu and J. L. Wu (1993). Infectious Pancreatics Necrosis Birus Infection In Taiwan’s Aquatic Fishes. J. Fish Soc. Taiwan., 20: 249-256.
Hughes, G. M. and R. J. Adeney (1977). The effects of zinc on the cardiac and ventilatory rhythms of Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richarddson) and their responses to environmental hypoxia. Water Res., 11:1069-1077.
Hung, T. C. and C. C. Tsai (1991). Study of heavy metals on the western coast of Taiwan. J. Environ. Protect. Soc. ROC, 14:11-34.
Hung, T. C. and T. T. Lin. (1976). Study of mercury in the stress, sediments and venthonic organisms along Chai-I coastal area. Acta Ocean. Taiwanica., 6: 30-32.
Iwama, G. and T. Nakanishi (1996). The fish immune system: organ, pathogen, and environment. Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 1-380.
Jorgensen, P. E. V. and N. P. Kehlet (1971). Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) viruses in Danish rainbow trout: their serological and pathogenic properties. Ord. Vet.-Med., 23:568-575.
Leland, H. V. and J. S. Kuwabara (1985). Trace metals. In: Rand, G. M., S. R. Petrocelli (eds.) Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology. Hemisphere Publishing Co., New York, pp. 374-415.
Lin, R, H. (1985). Biochemical characteristics of Infectious pancreatic necrosis, National Taiwan college of Marine Science & Technology, Taiwan. Genpmic and phenotypic divergence among three serotypes of aquatic birnaviruses (infectious pancreatic necrosis virus). Virology, 114:187-195
Lipipun, V., P. Caswell-Reno, Y. L. Hsu, J. L. Wu, M. C. Tung, P. W. Reno, W. Wattanavijarn and B. L. Nicholson (1989). Antigenic analysis of Asian aquatic birnavirus isolate using monoclonal antibodies. Fish Pathology, 24:155-160.
Lloyd, R. (1960). The toxicity of zinc sulfate to rainbow trout. Ann. Appl. Biol., 48:84-94.
Lo, C. F., Y. W. Hong, S. Y. Huang and C. H. Wang (1988). The characteristics of the virus isolated from the gill of clam, Meretrix lusoria. Fish Pathol., 23:147-154.
Lo, E. G. (1987). Biochemical and immunological characteristics of a virus isolated from largemouth bass, Microterus salmmoids (Lacpede). Master Thesis.
MacDonald, R. D. and D. A. Gower (1981). Genomic and phenotypic diversion among three serotypes of aquatic birnaviruses (infectious pancreatic necrosis virus). Virology. 114:187-195.
MacKelvie, R. M. and H. Artosob (1969). Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in young salmonids of the Canadian Maritime Provinces. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 26:3259-3262.
Malsberger, R. G. and C. P. Cerini (1963). Characteristics of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. J. Bacterial., 86:1283-1287
Matthiessen, P. and A. E. Brafield (1973). The effects of dissolved zinc on the gill of the stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. (L.) J. Fish Biol., 5:607-613.
Martin, R. B. (1986). Bioinorganic chemistry of metal ion toxicity. In: Sigel, H. (ed.) Metal Ions in Biological Systems. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 21-66.
Maule, A. G., R. A. Tripp and S. L. Kaattari (1989). Stress alters immune function and disease resistance in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). J. Endocrinol., 120:135-142
McAllister, P. E., W. B. Schill, W. J. Owens and D. L. Hodge (1993). Determining the prevalence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in asymptomatic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis: A study of clinical samples and processing methods. Dis. Aquat. Org., 15:157-162.
McFarlane, G. A. and W. G. Franzin (1978). Evaluated heavy metals: a stress on a population of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Hamell Lake, Saskatchewan. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 35:963-970.
Melby, H. P. and K. E. Christie (1994). Antigenic analysis of reference strains and Norwegian field strains of aquatic birnaviruses by the use of six monoclonal antibodies produced against the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus N1 strain. J. Fish Dis., 17:409-415.
Melby, H. P., P. Caswell-Reno and K. Falk (1994). Antigenic analysis of Norwegian aquatic birnavirus isolates using monoclonal antibodies with special reference to fish species, age and health status. J. Fish Dis., 17:85-91.
M’Gonigle, R. H. (1941). Acute catarrhal enteritis of salmonid fingerlings. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 70:297-303.
Miller, T. G., and W. C. Mackay, (1982). Relationship of secreted mucus to copper and acid toxicity in rainbow trout. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol, 28:68-74.
Miyahara, S. and A. Kudo (1988). Effect of decontamination project at Minamata Bay, Japan: Dramatic decrease of mercury dispersed into Yatsushiro Sea. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 15:339-343.
Maule, A. G., R. A. Tripp and S. L. Kaattari (1989).Stressalters immune function and disease resistance in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). J. Endocrinol, 120:135-142
Moss, L. H. and M. Gravell (1969). Ultrastructure and sequential development of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. J. Virol. 3:52-58.
Nakanishi, Y., H. Kodama, T. Murai and H. Izawa (1991). Activation of rainbow trout complement by C-reactive protein. Am. J. Vet. Res., 52:397-401.
Nicholson, B. L. and S. Pochebit (1981). Antigenic analysis of infectious pancreatic necrosis viruses (IPNV) by neutralization kinetics. Develop. Biol. Standard., 49:35-41.
Novoa, B., J. L. Barja and A. Figueras. (1995). Entry and sequential distribution of an aquatic birnavirus in turbot (Scophthalnus Maximus). Aquaculture, 131:1-9
Okamoto, K. and M. Hashimoto (1944). Histochemical test method of zinc. Jpn. J. Constit Med., 13:83-88.
Okamoto, N., T. Sano, R. P. Hedrick, and L. Fryer (1983). Antigenic relationships of selected strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and European eel virus. J. Fish Dis., 6:19-25.
Part, P. and R. A. Lock (1983). Diffusion of calcium, cadmium and mercury in a mucous solution from rainbow trout. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C., 76:259-263.
Reichert, W. L., D. A. Federighi and D. C. Malins (1979). Uptake and metabolism of lead and cadmium in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C., 63:229-234.
Rijkers, G. T. (1982). Kinetics of humoral and cellular immune reactions in fish. Dev. Comp. Immunol., 10:341.
Roberts, R. J. and I. J. McKnight (1976). The pathology of infectious pancreatic necrosis. II. Stress-mediated recurrence. Br Vet J., 132:209-14.
Robohmn, R. A. (1986). Paradoxical effects of cadium exprosure on antibacterial antibody responses in two fish species: inhibition in cunners (Tantogolabrus adsprersus) and enhancement in striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 12:251-22.
Sangalang, G. B. and H. C. Freeman (1974). Effects of sublethal cadmium on maturation and testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone production in vivo in the brook trout. Biol. Reprod., 11:429-435.
Sano, T. (1971a). Studies on viral diseases of Japanese fishes-I. Inffectious pancreatic necrosis of rainbow trout: first isolation from epizootics in Japan. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish., 37:495-498.
Sano, T. (1971b). Studies on viral diseases of Japanese fishes-II. Inffectious pancreatic necrosis of rainbow trout: pathogenicity of the isolants. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish., 37:499-503.
Sano, T. (1973). Studies on viral diseases of Japanese fishes. IV. infectious pancreatic necrosis of rainbow trout: susceptibility of fresh water salmons of genus Oncorhynchus. Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish., 39:117-120.
Satoh, S., T. Takeuchi, Y. Narabe and T. Watanabe (1983). Effects of deletion of several trace elements from fish meal diets on growth and mineral composition of rainbow trout fingerlings. Bull. Jap. Soci. Sci. Fisheries, 49:1909-1916.
Scott, B. J. and A. R. Bradwell (1983). Identification of the serum binding protein for iron, zinc, cadmium, nickel and calcium. Clin. Chem., 29:629-633.
Secombes, C. J. (1996). The non-specific immune system: cellular defenses. In: Iwama, G. and T. Nakanishi (eds.) The fish immune system: organism, pathogen, and environment. Academic Press, San Diego, California. pp. 63-103.
Shibata, S., M. Furukawa and R. Nakashima (1976). Syntheses of azo dyes containing 4,5-diphenylimidazole and their evaluation as analytical reagents. Anal. Chim. Acta, 81:131-141.
Siwicki, A. K., F. Pozet, M. Morand, C. Volatier and E. Terech-Majewska (1999). Effect of iridovirus-like agent on the cell-mediated immunity in sheatfish (Silurus glanis)─an in vitro study. Virus Research, 63:115-119
Skidmore, J. F. (1970) Respiration and osmoregulation in rainbow trout with gill damaged by zinc sulfate. J. Exp. Biol., 52:481-494.
Skidmore, J. F. and P. W. Tovell (1972). Toxic effects of zinc sulfate on the cell of rainbow trout. Water Res., l6:26-30.
Soivio, A., E. Nikunen and F. Turala (1988). Acute response to sodium hypochlorite in rainbow trout acclimiatized to pulp and paper mill effluents. Aquat. Toxicol., 13:77-88
Sorensen, E. M. B. (1991). Zinc. In: Metal poisoning in fish. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 119-174.
Sorimachi, M. and T. Hara (1985) Characteristics and pathogenicity of a virus isolated from yellowtail fingerlings showing ascites. Fish Pathol., 19:231-238.
Sparks, R. E., J. Cairns, R. A. Mcnabb and G. Suter II (1972) Monitoring zinc concentrations in water using the respiratory response of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirusrafinesqus). Hydrobiologial, l40:361-369.
St. J. Crane, M, P. Hardy-Smith, L. M. Williams, A. D. Hyatt, L. M. Eaton, A. Gould, J. Handlinger, J. Kattenbelt and N. Gudkovs (2000). First isolation of an aquatic birnavirus from farmed and wild fish species in Australia. Dis. Aquat. Org., 43: 1-14
Stave, J. W., B. S. Roberson and F. M. Hetrick (1983). Chemiluminescence of phagocytic cells isolated from the pronephros of striped bass. Dev. Comp. Immunol., 7:269-276.
Stephens, E. B., M. W. Newman, A. L. Zachary and F. M. Herick (1980). A viral aetiology for the annual spring epizootic of Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) in Chesapeake Bay. J. Fish Dis., 3:387-389.
Stroganov, N. S., O. V. Parina and K. F. Sorvachev (1973). Carp triethyl chloride absorption from water; It’s distribution organs and tissue, (in russian). Gidrobiol. ZN., 9:59-66.
Sunderman, F. W. Jr., (1975). Current status of zinc deficiency in the pathogenesis of neurological, dermatological and musculoskeletal disorders. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 5:132-45.
Sumi, Y. (1980). Histochemical staining of cadmium with thiazolylazophenol derivatives. Histochemistry, 67:1-6.
Sumi, Y., K. Miyazaki, A. Tanaka, T. Muraki, T. Suzuki (1979). Differential staining of cadmium and zinc by thiazolylazophenols. Acta. Histochem. Cytochem., 12:460-464.
Sumi, Y., M. T. Itoh, T. Muraki and T. Suzuki (1996). Histochemical staining of cadmium with 2-(8-quinolylazo)-4,5-diphenylimidazole. Histochem. Cell Biol., 106:223-227.
Sumi, Y., T. Muraki, T. Suzuki (1980). Histochemical staining of cadmium with benzothiazolylazophenol derivatives. Histochemistry, 68:231-236.
Sumi, Y., T. Muraki, T. Suzuki (1982). Histochemical staining of cadmium with benzothiazolylazonphenol derivatives. Histochemistry, 73:481-486.
Sumi, Y., T. Suzuki, M. Yamamura, S Hatakeyama, Y. Sugaya, K. T. Suzuki (1984). Histochemical staining of cadmium taken up by the midge larva, Chironomus yoshimatsui (Deptera, chironomidae). Comp Biochem. Physiol., 79A:353-357.
Swanson, R. N. and J. H. Gillespie (1979). Pathogenesis of infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 36:587-591.
Swanson, R. N., and J. H. Gillespie (1982). Isolation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from the blood and blood components of experimentally infected trout. Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci., 39:225-228.
Tafalla, T., A. Figueras and B. Novoa (1998). In vitro interaction of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and leukocytes from trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Vet. immunol. Immunopathol., 62:359-366.
Taksdal, T., A. Ramstad, K. Stangeland and B. H. Dannevig (1998). Induction of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in covertly infected Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., post-smolts by stress exposure, by injection of IPN virus (IPNV) and by cohabitation. J. Fish Dis., 21:193-204.
Tarrab, E., L. Berthiaume, J. Heppell, M. Arella and J. Lecomte (1993). Antigenic characterization of serogroup A of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus with three panels of monoclonal antibodies. J. Gen. Virol., 74:2025-2030.
Tietz, N.W. (1987). Fundaments of clinical chemistry, Saunders, Philadelphra.
Underwood, B. O., C. J. Smale and F. Brown (1977). Relationship of a virus from Tellina tenuis to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. J. Gen. Virol., 36:93-109.
Williams, S. R. (1969) Nutrition and diet therapy: C. V. Mosby Company, Stt. Llouis. pp. 686.
Wolf, K. (1988). Fish viruses and fish viral disease. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, London, pp.476.
Wolf, K., and M. C. Quimby (1971). Salmonid viruses: infectious pancreatic necrosis virus morphology, pathology, and serology of first European isolations. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch, 34:144-156.
Wolf, K., and J.A. Mann (1980) Poikiotherm vertebrate cell lines and viruses: a current listing for fishes. In Vitro, 16:168-178.
Wolf, K., S. F. Snieszko, and C. E. Dunbar (1959). Infectious pancreatic necrosis, a virus-caused disease of fish. Excerpta Med., 13:228.
Wolf, K., S. F. Snieszko, C. E. Dunbar and E. Pyle (1960). Virus nature of infectious pancreatic necrosis in trout. Proc. Soc. Exp. Bio. Med., 104:105-108
Wood, E. M., S. F. Snieszkom and W. T. Yasutake (1955). Infectious pancreatic necrosis in brood trout. Arch. Pathol., 60:26-28
Wood, J. M. (1974). Biological cycles for toxic elements in the environment. Science, 183:1049-1052.
Wu, J. L., C. Y. Chang and Y. L. Hsu (1987). Characteristics of an infectious pancreatic necrosis like virus isolated from Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology. Academia Sinica., 26:210-214.
Yano, T. (1995). Fish complement. Fish Pathology, 30:151-158.
Yano, T. (1996). The non-specific immune system: humoral defenses. In: Iwama, G. and T. Nakanishi (eds.) The Fish Immune System. Organism, Pathogen, and Environment. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA, pp. 105-157.
Yasutake, W. T., T. J. Parisot, and G. W. Klontz (1965). Virus disease of the salmonidae in western United States. II. Aspects of pathogenesis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 126:520-530.
Yu, K. K., R. D. Macdonald, and A. R. Moore. (1982). Replication of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in trout leucocytes and detection of the carrier state. J. Fish Dis., 5:401-410.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top