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研究生:許紋華
研究生(外文):Hsu Wen Hua
論文名稱:食物與環境因子對文蛤攝食的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Various Food and Environmenrtal Factors on Feeding of Hard Clam(Meretrix lusoria)
指導教授:陳瑤湖陳瑤湖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yew-Hu Chien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:濾水率擬份量食物環境因子
外文關鍵詞:Filtration ratePseudofeces quantityFoodEnvironmental Factors
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摘要
文蛤(Meretrix lusoria)是台灣產量最大的貝類,在2000年產量為26700公噸。塭養文蛤已是台灣文蛤養殖的主要型態。額外投餵人工飼料或食物在文蛤養殖極為普遍。但對於文蛤接受食物程度以及接受量則尚無具體的探討。
本研究的目的是採用已為或可作為文蛤食物的七種食物:魚粉、黃豆粉、商業文蛤飼料粉、擬球藻、扁藻與味精發酵母液(CMS)及麵包酵母菌來探討:不同食物、食物濃度( 20 mg/L、200mg/ml、633mg/L)、文蛤大小(7-11g、12-17g、18-26g )及溫度(25℃、30℃ )、鹽度(15、20、25、30ppt )、文蛤大小(7-11g、18-26g )對文蛤濾水率及擬糞量的影響。
胃含物分析結果顯示所給予的各種食物都可被文蛤接受。適合文蛤攝食之食物顆粒粒徑為:魚粉16-25 μm,黃豆粉16-20 μm,而5μm以下之食物不易為文蛤所濾取。文蛤對顆粒形狀不規則同時也是顆粒粒徑較大的黃豆粉、文蛤粉、及魚粉的濾水率顯著地大於形狀規則且粒徑較小的酵母菌、擬球藻、扁藻、CMS。濾水率會隨著食物濃度的增加而減少。濾水率會隨著文蛤大小而遞減,小文蛤的濾水率與中文蛤差距較大,中文蛤與大文蛤的濾水率差距較小,食物種類、食物濃度及文蛤大小兩兩之間及三者之間對濾水率之交感效應皆顯著。擬糞量也會依不同性質食物而有所不同。鹽度介於15-30ppt時,濾水率與鹽度呈現負相關,15ppt時的濾水率最高,接著為25ppt、20ppt及30ppt。25℃的濾水率高於30℃的濾水率,30℃已不利於文蛤的攝食。溫度與鹽度對濾水率之交感效應有顯著效應。溫度與鹽度對擬糞的產生幾近有交感效應。
ABSTRACT
Hard clam (Meretrix lusoria) is the most important cultured mollusca in Taiwan. Its production is 26700 MT in 2000. It is mainly cultured in ponds and supplemental feeding of artificial feed is commonly practiced. However, no study has been conducted on food acceptance and optimal food concentration for feeding.
Seven foods, which are currently used or potentially can be used as hard clam food: fishmeal, soybean meal, commercial hard clam powder, planktonic algae such as Tetraselmis chui, and Nannochloropsis sp., Condensed Molasses Fermentation Solubles (CMS), and bread yeast, were used to study the effects of: I. various foods, food concentrations (20 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 633 mg/L), and clam sizes (7-11g, 12-17 g, and 18-26 g), and II. Temperatures (25 C and 30 C), salinities (15 ppt, 20 ppt, 25 ppt, and 30 ppt), and clam sizes (7-11 g and 18-26 g) on filtration rate and pseudofeces exexretion of hard clam.
Stomach content analysis indicated all 7 foods were acceptable to hard clam. Optimal particle sizes (long axis) were 16-25 um for fishmeal and 11-15 um for soybean meal. Food particle sizes small than 5 um were hardly to be filtered by hard clam. Filtration rates were significantly higher for soybean meal, clam powder, and fishmeal, of which shapes were irregular and particle sizes were larger, than for yeast, both planktonic algae, and CMS, of which shapes were regular and particle sizes were smaller. Filtration rate decreased with increasing food concentration. Specific filtration rate (adjusted with weight) decreased with increasing clam size. The difference in filtration rate between small and medium size clam was greater than between medium and large size clam. The effects of all interactions between foods, food concentrations, and clam sizes on filtration rates were significant. Various foods had significant effects on pseudofeces execretion. There was a negative correlation between filtration rate and salinity when salinity ranged 15-30 ppt. Filtration rate was highest at 15 ppt, followed by 25 ppt, 20 ppt, and 30 ppt. Filtration rate at 25 C was significantly higher than that at 30 C, which was unfavorable for the feeding of hard clam. Temperature and salinity interaction had significant effects on filtration rate and nearly had significant effects on pseudofeces execretion.
目錄
謝辭-------------------------------------------------Ⅰ
摘要-------------------------------------------------Ⅱ
英文摘要---------------------------------------------Ⅲ
目錄-------------------------------------------------Ⅳ
表目錄-----------------------------------------------VII
圖目錄-----------------------------------------------Ⅷ
圖片目錄---------------------------------------------Ⅸ
附錄目錄---------------------------------------------Ⅹ
前言-------------------------------------------------1
實驗材料與方法---------------------------------------13
1. 材料 ---------------------------------------------13
1.1微細藻 --------------------------------------------13
1.2 魚粉、黃豆粉、商用文蛤飼料粉---------------------13
1.3 麵包酵母菌---------------------------------------14
1.4味精發酵母液(Concentrated Molasses Fermentation Solubles
,CMS)和脫硫渣---------------------------------------14
1.5 實驗用文蛤與蓄養---------------------------------14
2 實驗方法-------------------------------------------15
2.1 食物粒徑大小、與型態、物理性質-------------------15
2.1.1 粉碎時間---------------------------------------15
2.1.2 粒徑的測量-------------------------------------15
2.1.3 懸浮顆粒標準曲線的製作-------------------------16
2.1.4 懸浮性的測定 -----------------------------------16
2.1.5 CMS中和與加入海水之pH值變化--------------------16
2.1.6 脫流渣作為中和劑應用的可能性-------------------17
2.2 系統實驗測試-------------------------------------17
2.3. 攝食實驗----------------------------------------17
2.4 食物本質、食物濃度與文蛤大小對文蛤攝食的影響-----19
2.4.1 濾水率的測定-----------------------------------19
2.4.2 擬糞的測定-------------------------------------21
2.5 環境因子對文蛤濾食的影響-------------------------21
3.統計分析-------------------------------------------22
結果-------------------------------------------------24
1 食物物性的探討-------------------------------------24
1.1食物顆粒大小--------------------------------------24
1.2食物顆粒粉碎所需時間與其顆粒粒徑分布的關係--------24
1.3 懸浮顆粒標準曲線製作-----------------------------24
1.4 不同食物懸浮性的比較-----------------------------24
1.5 CMS與海水混合和其pH值----------------------------25
1.6 脫硫渣與CMS作用中和劑的狀況----------------------26
2 實驗系統測試---------------------------------------26
3. 攝食實驗------------------------------------------26
4. 食物、濃度與文蛤大小對濾食率的影響----------------27
4.1主效應--------------------------------------------27
4.1.1 食物效應---------------------------------------27
4.1.2 濃度效應---------------------------------------28
4.1.3 文蛤大小效應-----------------------------------28
4.2交感效應------------------------------------------28
4.2.1文蛤大小與食物種類交感效應----------------------28
4.2.2食物種類與濃度交感效應--------------------------29
4.2.3文蛤大小與食物濃度交感效應----------------------30
4.3食物種類對擬糞的影響------------------------------30
5溫度與鹽度對文蛤濾食的影響--------------------------30
5.1主效應--------------------------------------------30
5.1.1 濾水率-----------------------------------------30
5.2 交感效應-----------------------------------------30
5.2.1文蛤大小與鹽度交感效應--------------------------30
5.2.2 溫度與鹽度交感效應-----------------------------31
5.3 擬糞---------------------------------------------31
5.3 相關性-------------------------------------------31
討論-------------------------------------------------32
1 材料與方法-----------------------------------------32
1.1 食物的選擇---------------------------------------32
1.2 投餵量的決定-------------------------------------33
1.3 濾水率的定義與公式-------------------------------33
2食物顆粒懸浮狀況實驗--------------------------------34
3 攝食實驗-------------------------------------------34
3.1 胃容物的檢查-------------------------------------34
3.2 攝入食物顆粒粒徑的分布---------------------------35
4食物、濃度與文蛤大小對濾水率影響--------------------36
4.1食物效應------------------------------------------36
4.2 濃度效應-----------------------------------------37
4.3文蛤大小反應--------------------------------------38
4.4 不同文蛤大小與食性的關係-------------------------39
4.5 交感效應-----------------------------------------39
5環境因子對文蛤濾食的影響----------------------------39
5.1 溫度、鹽度對文蛤濾食的影響-----------------------39
5.2 溫度鹽度交感效應---------------------------------40
5.3溫鹽交感效應對擬糞產量的關係----------------------41
結論-------------------------------------------------43
參考文獻---------------------------------------------44
圖表-------------------------------------------------55
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