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研究生:陳家勇
研究生(外文):Chia yung Chen
論文名稱:鰻魚生殖內分泌調控研究
論文名稱(外文):Regulation of Reproductive Endocrines in the Japanese Eel ( Anguilla japonica )
指導教授:張清風張清風引用關係
指導教授(外文):C. F. Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:鰻魚生殖內分泌
外文關鍵詞:eelReproductive Endocrines
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摘要
本研究之目的在探討鰻魚的生殖與代謝內分泌生理間之相互作用機制,尤其在日本鰻,希望藉由注射實驗,去瞭解各賀爾蒙間的交互作用與其對生殖軸線的影響程度,利用本實驗室已建立之放射線免疫測定法,去測定生物體內各賀爾蒙之量,本研究將針對養殖與野生日本鰻之生殖與代謝生理做較為深入的探討,試圖找尋其中之相異與相同點,並探討二者間之交互作用,更交互比較野生與養殖鰻之年齡對生理之影響。
長時間注射SPE可促進鰻魚腦mGnRH含量提升,亦可促進腦下垂體 LH含量與血漿性類固醇濃度提升,進而促進生殖腺的發育,以雌鰻魚生殖腺的發育之效果為顯著;注射SPE + Estradiol-17β及SPE + DHT可增強SPE之催熟效價;低溫益於SPE對腦mGnRH的調控,進而促進鰻魚之Pituitary LH含量的增加。
SPE + Insulin可於短時間內增大鰻魚brain mGnRH含量的增加和降低SPE對雄鰻魚Pituitary LH含量的增加的能力,顯示insulin對腦與腦下垂體之作用機制不同,以及Insulin會對SPE催熟效果有壓抑作用;但insulin單獨注射可促進雄鰻之生殖腺發育,透過活化整個生殖機制,insulin可促進鰻魚腦mGnRH含量,且有劑量上的關係,並進一步促進鰻魚Pituitary LH含量的增加,緊接著刺激血漿LH濃度增加,insulin在鰻魚之血漿中雌性賀爾蒙的調控具年齡上差異(年齡越大,表現越佳),在鰻魚之血漿中雄性賀爾蒙的調控具性別關係(雄性促進,雌魚抑制),但卻對雌鰻無效,表現出劑量關係與性別之差異性;長時間注射hCG可促進brain mGnRH與Pitutary LH含量的增加,hCG + Insulin可於短時間促進brain mGnRH含量的增加與大幅度提升hCG對Pituitary LH含量的增加的調控能力,顯示insulin對hCG作用有加成作用,但僅限於雄鰻魚,insulin對鰻魚之生殖調控具有性別差異,以及鰻魚之生殖機制可能是多因子同時運作,而使鰻魚之生殖進程可於迴游至產卵場前完成,而使其適應能量過度消耗所帶來之不適。
生殖腺未發育之鰻魚,其brain mGnRH含量與Pituitary LH含量奇高,而且血漿LH濃度奇高,其血漿中雌性賀爾蒙較生殖腺發育正常之鰻魚高。性類固醇對於鰻魚之生殖調控在於促進腦與腦下垂合成激素,但卻無法釋放至血液中而達到生殖腺發育。
注射高劑量Cortisol對鰻魚之生殖是不利的,但低高劑量Cortisol對鰻魚腦及腦下垂體激素之合成是有益,而且亦表現出年齡與性別之差異,但從注射Cortisol至無生殖腺之鰻魚的結果看來,Cortisol對鰻魚之生殖是不利的,但在其他因子的搭配下,便成有利的,高低劑量T3對鰻魚腦及腦下垂體激素之合成是有益。
研究野生鰻魚之生殖生理的表現,將有益我們對其特性及生活習性的瞭解,野生鰻魚之年齡分佈甚廣,不因是銀鰻便較高,顯示鰻魚之銀化作用之起始要在多項因子配合下方可,年齡反而不是絕對。
Abstract
The objectives of this studies were to investigate the effects of reproductive and metabolic hormones in the reproductive endocrinology and reproduction in Japanse eel, Anguilla japonica. Salmon pituitary extract (SPE) stimulated brain mGnRH content, pituitary LH content, estradiol and testosterone level. Estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) potentiated the stimulatory effects of SPE. Eels cultured at low temperatures had a higher pituitary LH and gonadosomatic index (GSI) than eels cultured at high temperatures. Insulin alone stimulated male gonadal development, brain mGnRH and pituitary LH content at a dose-dependent effect. SPE + Insulin could rapidly increase content of brain mGnRH and decrease content of pituitary LH in male eel. Long-term injection of hCG can increase content of brain mGnRH and pituitary LH. hCG + Insulin stimulated the increase of brain mGnRH content in a short time. The data also demonstrated that insulin could potentiate the stimulatory effect of hCG in pituitary LH content. Eels with less gonadal development had higher content of brain mGnRH and pituitary LH and concentrations of plasma LH and estradiol than normal eel. Sex steroids stimulated brain mGnRH and pituitary LH content; but plasma LH levels were not increased as compared to the control. Low dose of cortisol increased brain mGnRH and pituitary LH content. T3 also stimulated brain mGnRH and pituitary LH content at a dose-dependent effect. The study suggest that metabolic hormones were closedly associated with the regulation of reproductive hormones and gonadal development in eels.
目錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
謝辭……………………………………………………………………..Ⅳ
圖表目錄………………………………………………………………..Ⅴ
壹、 文獻整理與前言…………………………………………………..1
一、 野生鰻魚及養殖鰻魚生活史………………………………...1
二、 魚類洄游與生殖機構………………………………………...3
三、 魚之生殖與代謝內分泌調控………………………………...9
四、 鰻魚之養殖史……………………………………………….28
五、 耳石之特性………………………………………………….28
六、 研究動機與目的…………………………………………….30
貳、材料與方法
一、養殖鰻魚之生殖生理探討
(一) 實驗用魚………………………………………………………….31
(二) 實驗魚之麻醉…………………………………………………….31
(三) 注射與採樣方法………………………………………………….31
(四)實驗設計
1. 注射鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物(SPE)對海水馴化過養殖鰻魚pitutary LH、brain mGnRH含量、血漿之性類固醇濃度及生殖腺發育情形
之影響……………………………………………………………….32
(1) 注射鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物於養殖年齡為4年之雄鰻魚
(2) 注射鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物於不同飼養溫度養殖年齡為2年鰻魚
(3) 注射鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物至養殖年齡為4年鰻魚
(4)注射鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物至養殖年齡為8年鰻魚
2. 注射人類絨毛膜性腺激素hCG對海水馴化過鰻魚pitutary LH、brain mGnRH、血漿LH與性類固醇濃度及生殖腺發育情形之影響..33
(1) 注射人類絨毛膜性腺激素於養殖年齡為2年鰻魚
(2)注射人類絨毛膜性腺激素於養殖年齡為8年鰻魚
3. 注射E2、T對海水馴化過鰻魚pitutary LH、brain mGnRH及生殖腺發育情形之影響…………………………………………………….33
(1) 注射E2、T於海水馴化過之2年鰻魚
(2)注射E2及T於海水馴化過養殖年齡8年鰻魚
4. 注射代謝性賀爾蒙Cortisol、T3、Insulin對海水馴化過鰻魚pitutary LH、brain mGnRH、血漿LH與性類固醇濃度及生殖腺發育情形之影響……………………………………………………………………….33
(1) 注射Insulin對海水馴化過4年齡鰻魚
(2) 注射高低劑量Insulin於海水馴化過養殖年齡8年鰻魚
(3) 注射Cortisol、T3、Insulin於海水馴化過2年齡鰻魚
(4) 注射Cortisol及T3於海水馴化過4年齡鰻魚
(5) 注射Cortisol於海水馴化過養殖年齡8年鰻魚
5. 鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物 (SPE) 與Insulin間之交互關係,對海水馴化過養殖鰻魚pitutary LH、brain mGnRH含量、血漿之性類固醇濃度及生殖腺發育情形之影響 ………………………………………………34
6. 注射SPE+ E2、SPE+T及SPE+DHT (Dihydrotestosterone)對海水馴化過養殖年齡8年鰻魚pitutary LH、brain mGnRH含量、血漿之性類固醇濃度及生殖腺發育情形之影響 …………………………………35
7. hCG與Isulin間之交互關係,對海水馴化過養殖年齡8年養殖鰻魚pitutary LH、brain mGnRH含量、血漿之性類固醇濃度及生殖腺發育情形之影響 ……………………………………………………………35
(5) 實驗藥品配置……………………………………………………...35
二、 野生鰻魚之生殖生理探討
1. 實驗動物…………………………………………………………….36
2. 實驗魚之麻醉……………………………………………………….37
3. 實驗設計
(1)做野生鰻魚之基礎生理分析,探討不同時期及年齡之基礎生理生理變化及生殖生理……………………………………………………..37
三、分析方法
(一) mGnRH之析………………………………………………………37
1. GnRH之碘化反應…………………………………………………...38
2. mGnRH之RIA………………………………………………………38
(二) LH之分析
1. LH之碘化反應………………………………………………………39
2. LH RIA……………………………………………………………..39
(三) 血漿性類固醇激素之測定……………………………………….40
(四) 分析鰻魚耳石年齡……………………………………………….40
(五) 組織切片………………………………………………………….41
(六) 生殖腺玻片觀察………………………………………………….42
(七) 統計分析………………………………………………………….42
參、結果
一、 養殖鰻
(一) 注射鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物(SPE)對海水馴化過養殖鰻魚腦下垂體LH、腦mGnRH含量、血漿之性類固醇濃度及生殖腺發育情形之影響
一. 注射鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物對養殖年齡為4年之雄鰻魚腦mGnRH含量及腦下垂體LH之影響……………………………………………43
二. 注射鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物對不同飼養溫度養殖年齡為2年鰻魚腦mGnRH含量及腦下垂體LH含量之影響…………………………….43
三. 注射鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物對養殖年齡為4年鰻魚腦mGnRH含量及腦下垂體LH含量之影響……………………………………………44
四. 注射鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物對養殖年齡為8年鰻魚腦mGnRH含量及腦下垂體LH含量之影響……………………………………………45
五. 注射SPE對不同催熟程度(不同GSI大小)血漿E2及T濃度之影響………………………………………………………………………..46
(二) 注射人類絨毛膜性腺激素 ( Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin) 對海水馴化過鰻魚腦下垂體 LH、腦 mGnRH、血漿LH與性類固醇濃度及生殖腺發育情形之影響………………………………………….46
(三) 注射E2、T對海水馴化過鰻魚pitutary LH、brain mGnRH及生殖腺發育情形之影響…………………………………………………….48
(四) 注射代謝性賀爾蒙Cortisol、T3與Insulin對海水馴化過鰻魚pitutary LH、brain mGnRH、血漿LH與性類固醇濃度及生殖腺發育情形之影響……………………………………………………………50
(五) 鮭魚腦下垂體抽出物(SPE)與Insulin間之交互關係,對海水馴化過養殖雄鰻魚腦下垂體 LH、腦 mGnRH含量及生殖腺發育情形之影響……………………………………………………………………….57
(六) 注射SPE + E2、SPE +T及SPE + DHT 對海水馴化過養殖年齡8年鰻魚腦下垂體 LH、腦 mGnRH含量及生殖腺發育情形之影響..58
(七) hCG與Isulin間之交互關係,對海水馴化過養殖年齡8年養殖鰻魚腦下垂體 LH、腦mGnRH含量、血漿之LH及性類固醇濃度及生殖腺發育情形之影響…………………………………………………..59
(八) 有無生殖腺發育對養殖八年齡雌雄鰻魚在腦下垂體 LH、腦mGnRH含量、血漿之LH及性類固醇濃度及生殖腺發育情形之
影響…………………………………………………………………….61
二、 野生鰻魚
(一) 做野生鰻魚之基礎生理分析,探討不同時期及年齡之基礎生理生理變化及生殖生理
1. 不同年齡、時期、GSI及mGnRH含量之交互關係
a. 年齡與mGnRH含量之交互關係…………………………………...62
b. GSI與mGnRH含量之交互關係……………………………………62
c. GSI與年齡含量之交互關係………………………………………..63
(二) 不同時期之生殖生理變化-野生鰻與養殖鰻之差異
1. 野生鰻魚腦下垂體LH、腦mGnRH及血漿之LH性類固醇之 變動………………………………………………………………….63
2. 養殖鰻魚腦下垂體LH、腦mGnRH及血漿之LH及性類固醇之變動……………………………………………………………………….65
三、 養殖鰻不同年齡之生殖生理特性
(一) 未經處理之養殖鰻之生殖生理特性…………………………….66
(二) 比較同藥物注射-劑量、次數及年齡對鰻魚之pitutary及brain之LH、mGnRH之影響………………………………………….67
肆、討論
一、 SPE調控鰻魚生殖內分泌之機制
(一) 長時間注射SPE可促進鰻魚腦mGnRH含量提升-相較於短時間射…………………………………………………………………..68
(二) SPE可促進腦下垂體 LH之合成與血漿性類固醇濃度提升…………………………………………………………………..68
(三) 注射SPE,GSI大小會影響血漿中雌雄性賀爾蒙的變化…………………………………………………………………..69
(四) Insulin對SPE的催熟效果之影響………………………………..70
(五) 性類固醇對SPE催熟效果之影響……………………………….70
(六) 低溫18℃促進SPE對鰻魚的催熟效果……………………….…72
(七) SPE之可能機制…………………………………………………...73
二、 Insulin對鰻魚生殖內分泌之影響
(一) Insulin可促進鰻魚腦mGnRH含量,且有劑量上的關係………74
(二) Insulin可促進鰻魚Pitutary LH含量……………………………..74
(三) Insulin會提升血漿LH的濃度……………………………………75
(四) Insulin可促進養殖8年齡鰻魚之血漿中雌性賀爾蒙升高-與養殖2年齡鰻魚比較……………………………………………………75
(五) Insulin可促進雄性養殖8年齡及2年齡鰻魚之血漿中雄性賀爾蒙升高-與養殖8年齡雌性鰻魚比較……………………………..76
(六) Insulin對生殖之可能作用方式…………………………………...77
三、 hCG對鰻魚生殖內分泌之調控機制
(一) 長時間注射hCG可促進brain mGnRH之合成…………………77
(二) 注射hCG可提升Pitutary LH之合成能力………………………77
(三) Insulin對hCG之催熟效果之影響……………………………….78
四、 性類固醇對鰻魚生殖內分泌之調控
(一) 長時間注射E2或T可促進鰻魚brain mGnRH之合成…………80
(二) 長時間注射E2或T可促進鰻魚之Pitutary LH合成……………80
五、 Cortisol與T3對鰻魚生殖內分泌之調控機制
(一) 長時間注射高劑量Cortisol及T3可促進養殖2年齡鰻魚brain mGnRH之合成-與養殖8年齡鰻魚比較………………………81
(二) 注射低劑量Cortisol至缺乏生殖腺之鰻魚,會抑制brain mGnRH之合成……………………………………………………………..82
(三) 長時間注射高劑量Cortisol及T3可促進養殖2年齡雄鰻魚之Pitutary LH合成-與養殖2年齡雌鰻魚及8年齡鰻魚比較……82
(四) 注射低劑量Cortisol至缺乏生殖腺之鰻魚,會抑制Pitutary LH之合成………………………………………………………………..83
(五) 長時間注射Cortisol可促進養殖8年齡雌鰻魚之Pitutary LH釋放-與養殖4年齡鰻魚比較………………………………………..83
(六) 注射低劑量Cortisol至缺乏生殖腺之鰻魚,會抑制血漿中性賀爾蒙之釋放…………………………………………………………..84
(七) 長時間注射低劑量Cortisol或T3可抑制鰻魚血漿中雌性賀爾蒙的量………………………………………………………………..84
六、 生殖腺發育程度與鰻魚生殖內分泌之關係
(一) 缺乏生殖腺之鰻魚,其brain mGnRH含量奇高……………….84
(二) 缺乏生殖腺之鰻魚,其Pitutary LH含量奇高………………….85
(三) 缺乏生殖腺之鰻魚,其血漿LH濃度奇高………………………85
(四) 缺乏生殖腺之鰻魚,其血漿中雌性賀爾蒙較生殖腺發育正常之鰻魚高……………………………………………………………..85
七、 鰻魚生殖內分泌與其它因子-調控者………………………… 85
八、 野生鰻魚之生殖生理
(一) 比較野生鰻魚及養殖鰻魚在不同時期之生殖生理…………….86
(二) 野生鰻魚與生殖生理和年齡之關係…………………………….87
伍、 結論………………………………………………………………..89
陸、 參考文獻………………………………………………………….92
陸、參考文獻
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